Pharmacology Unit 1

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Pharmacology: Nursing program Block II 2013
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1

Pharmacology

deals w/the study of drugs & their actions on living organisms.

2

Diseases that cause illness may be treated in several different ways, which are referred to as

Therapies

3

The four therapeutic methods are:

1. Drug Therapy: treatment with drugs
2. Diet therapy: treatment with diet (low-salt diet for patient w/cardiovascular disease)
3. Physiotherapy: treatment with natural physical forces (water, light, heat)
4. Psychological therapy: the identification of stressors & methods that can be used to reduce or eliminate stress.

4

What is drug therapy?

Treatment w/drugs

5

What is diet therapy?

Treatment w/diet

*Example- low salt diet for cardiac patients

6

Physiotherapy:

Treatment w/natural physical forces

*Example- such as light, heat, water...

7

Psychological therapy:

The identification of stressors & methods that can be used to reduce or eliminate stress.
*IDENTIFY PROBLEM & REDUCE OR ELIMINATE STRESS*

8

What are Drugs?

Chemical substances that have an affect on living organisms

9

What are Therapeutic drugs

They are often called medicines,and are those drugs that are used for prevention or treatment of diseases.
*OFTEN CALLED MEDICINES & USED TO PREVENT OR TREAT DISEASES*

10

When administering the prescribed drug, the ________on the drug package must correspond ____ with the spelling of the drug ordered to ensure that the proper medicine is administered.

spelling / exactly

11

How many names does each drug have?

3

Chemical, generic, brand

12

_______ name is most meaningful to the chemist. By means of chemical constitution of the drug as well as the exact placement of its atoms or molecular groupings.

Chemical

13

______ name also known as the common name; it's simpler than the chemical name, it may be used in any country & by any manufacturer.

Generic

14

A trademark or ______ name is followed by the symbol ®. This symbol indicates that the name is registered and that the use of the name is restricted to the owner of the drug, who is usually the manufacturer.

Brand

15

Drugs are classified by a variety of methods according to:

1. The BODY SYSTEM that they affect (the CNS, the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal system)
2. Their THERAPEUTIC USER or CLINICAL INDICATIONS ( antacids, antibiotics, antihypertensives, diuretics, laxatives)
3. PHYSIOLOGIC or CHEMICAL ACTION (anticholinergics, beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers, cholinergics)

16

____ ___which are sometimes referred to as RECREATIONAL DRUGS, are drugs or chemical substances used for nontherapeutic purposes.

Illegal drugs

17

Drug products made by different manufacturers or in different batches by the same manufacturer must be uniformly ______ & ______.

pure / potent

18

The United States _______________ ____________ is a non government organization that promotes public health by establishing state-of-the-art standards to ensure the quality of medicines & other health care technologies.

Pharmacopeial Convention

19

The convention publishes a single volume text, called the...

United States Pharmacopeia (USP)/National Formulary (NF).

20

How often is the United States Pharmacopeia (USP)/National Formulary (NF)updated?

A. Every 10yrs
B. Annually
C. Bi-annually
D. Every 5yrs

B. Annually

21

What is the primary purpose of the USP/NF?

To provide standards for the identity, quality, strength & purity of substances used in the practice of health care.

22

Who enforces the standards described in the USP/NF?

The FDA as the official standards for the manufacturer & quality control of medicines & nutritional supplements produced in the United States.

23

Facts about package inserts-

Manufacturers of drugs have to develop a comprehensive but concise description of the drug, indications & precautions for clinical use, recommendations for dosage, known adverse reactions, contraindications, & other pharmacologic information relating to the drug.

24

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention & Control Act (Controlled Substance Act)

The law was designed to improve the administration & regulation of the manufacturing, distribution & dispensing of drugs that require control by the government because of their high incidence of abuse.

25

-Schedule I drugs-

1. High potential for abuse
2. Not currently accepted for medical use in the United States
3. Lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision
* Examples: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana, peyote, STP, heroin, hashish*

26

-Schedule II drugs-

1. High potential for abuse
2. Currently accepted for medical use in the United States
3. Abuse potential that may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
*Examples: secobarbital, pentobarbital, amphetamines, morphine, vicodin, methadone, Percodan, methylphenidate

27

-Schedule III drugs-

1. High potential for abuse but less so than drugs in Schedules I & II
2. Currently accepted for medical use in the United States
3. Abuse potential that may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence
*Examples: Empirin w/codeine Lortab, Fiorinal, Tylenol w/ codeine

28

-Schedule IV drugs-

1. Low potential for abuse as compared w/drugs in Schedule III
2. Currently accepted for medical use in the United States
3. Abuse potential that may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence as compared w/drugs in Schedule III
*Examples: phenobarbital, chloral hydrate, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, flurazepam, temazepam

29

-Schedule V drugs-

1. Low potential for abuse as compared w/drugs in Schedule IV
2. Currently accepted for medical use in the United States
3. Abuse potential of limited physical or psychological dependence liability as compared w/drugs in Schedule IV; because abuse potential is low, a prescription may not be required
*Examples: Lomotil, Robitussin AC

30

DEA, Drug Enforcement Administration was organized to....

enforce the Controlled Substance Act, to gather intelligence, to train its officers, and to conduct research in the area of dangerous drugs & drug abuse.

31

Every manufacturer, physician, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, dentist, pharmacy, and hospital that manufactures, prescribes, or dispenses any of the drugs listed in the 5 schedules must ...

register biannually with the DEA.

32

A health care provider's prescription for substances named in this law (DEA) must contain what?

The health care provider's name, address, DEA registration number & signature; the patient's name & address

33

Controlled substances in hospitals

All controlled substances kept in stock in hospitals for unit stock must be ordered on special forms that are used to help maintain the inventory & dispersion control records of the scheduled drugs

34

page-5

...

35

-Sources of drug information-
USP Dictionary of United States Adopted Names (USAN) & International Drug Names

* Published Annually
* Compilation of more than 10,000 drug names
* Describes the criteria by which drugs are named
* Online version available

36

-Sources of drug information-

American Drug Index

* Index of medicines available in the United States
* Useful for quickly comparing brand names & generic names & for checking available strengths & dosage forms

37

-Sources of drug information-

American Hospital Formulary Service, Drug information

* Contains monographs about virtually every-single entity drug available in the United States
* Describes therapeutic uses of drugs, including approved & unapproved uses
* Online version available

38

-Sources of drug information-

Drug Interaction Facts

* Currently considered the most comprehensive book available about drug interactions

39

-Sources of drug information-

Drug facts & comparisons

* Contains drug monographs that describe all drugs in a therapeutic class
* Monographs are formulated as tablets to allow comparison of similar products, brand names, manufacturers, cost indices & available dosage forms
* Online version available

40

-Sources of drug information-
ASHP's Handbook on injectable Drugs: IV decision support

* Collection of monographs about 349 injectable drugs w/sections on available concentrations, compatibility w/other drugs, dosage & rate of administration, stability, pH & other useful information
* Interactive version available

41

-Sources of drug information-

Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An interactive approach to self-care

* Most comprehensive text available about over-the-counter medications that can be purchased in the United States
* Online version available

42

-Sources of drug information-

Martindale: The complete drug reference

* Considered one of the most comprehensive text available for information about drugs in current use through out the world
* Contains extensive referenced monographs about the international names, pharmacologic activity & side effects of more than 5500 drugs
* Online subscription available

43

-Sources of drug information-

Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)

* Discusses more than 3000 therapeutic agents
* Divided into 6 sections: 1. manufacturers' index; 2. brand & generic name index; 3. product category index; 4. product identification guide; 5. product information section; 6. dietary supplements
* Includes a tear-out form for the MedWatch program for use by health professionals to voluntarily report adverse effects of drugs

44

-Sources of drug information-

Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database

* Scientific gold standard for evidence-based information about herbal medicines
* Online database available