eyes and ears

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1

what percentage of sensory receptors in the body are in the eye

70

2

the diameter of the eye is

1 inch

3

what fraction of the eye is visible

1/6

4

parts of the eye

eyeball and accessory structures

5

what are the accessory structures of the eye

eyebrows, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic muscles of the eye

6

terminal hair that overlie the supraorbital margins of the skull

eye brows

7

function of eye brows

help to shad the eyes from sunlight and prevent perspiration trickling down the forehead from reaching the eyes

8

the eyelids are think, skin covered folds supported internally by connective tissue sheets called

tarsal plates

9

the space between the two eye lids is called the

palperbral fissure

10

the eyelids meet at the

medial and lateral commissures

11

on the medial commissure, a fleshy elevation that contains sebaceous and sweat glands that produce a whitish oily secretion

lacrimal caruncle

12

the tarsal plates are anchored by

orbicularis oculi and levator palpebrae superioris

13

modified sebaceous glands that produce an oily substance which lubricates the eyelid and the eye form sticking together

tarsal galnds

14

transparent mucous membrane that lines the inner aspect of the eyelids

conjunctiva

15

the membrane that lines the inner aspect of the eyelid (part of the conjunctiva)

palpebral conjunctiva

16

the membrane that lines the anterior surface of the eyeball (part of the conjunctiva)

bulbar conjunctiva

17

function of the conjunctiva

produces a lubrication mucus that prevents the eyes from drying out.

18

lacrimal fluid contains

mucus, antibodies, and lysozymes (enzymes that destroy bacteria)

19

what are the three layers of the eye ball

fibrous, vascular and inner

20

which is the outermost layer of the eye

fibrous layer

21

dense avascular connective tissue

fibrous layer

22

what are the two parts of the fibrous layer

sclera and cornea

23

white and opaque, provides a study anchoring site for extrinsic eye muscles

sclera

24

posterior 5/6 of eye

sclera

25

anterior 1/6 of eye

cornea

26

transparent part of eye with nerve endings

cornea

27

middle layer of the eyeball

vascular

28

also called the uvea

vascular layer

29

the three parts of the vascular layer

choroid, ciliary body and iris

30

forms the posterior 5/6 of the vascular layer

choroid

31

prevents light from scattering and reflecting within the eye

choroid

32

incomplete posteriorly where the optic nerve leaves the eye

choroid

33

thickened ring of tissue that encircles the lens

ciliary body

34

the ciliary body consists chiefly of interlacing smooth muscle bundles called

ciliary muscles

35

acts to control lens shape

ciliary muscles

36

the posterior surface of the lens is thrown into radiating folds called

cilary processes

37

secrete the fluid that fills the cavity of the anterior segment of the eyeball

ciliary processes

38

attaches to the ciliary processes to the lens

ciliary zonule

39

makes of 1/6 of the fibrous layer

iris

40

visible part of the eye

iris

41

most anterior portion of the vascular layer

iris

42

round central opening that allows light to enter the eye

pupil

43

the two smooth muscle layers that make the iris

sphincter pupillae (circular) and the dilator pupillae (radial)

44

contains melonocytes

choroid

45

innermost layer of the eyeball

retina

46

contains millions of photoreceptors that transduce light energy

retina

47

two layers of the retina

outer pigmented layer and a neural layer

48

absorb light and prevent it from scattering in the eye and also act as phagocytes participating in photoreceptor cell renewal and store vitamin A

pigmented layer of retina

49

the neural layer of the retina is composed of

photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells

50

where the optic nerve exist the eye

optic disc

51

posterior wall of the eye

fundus

52

another name for the optic disc

blind spot

53

what does a blind spot exists

because it doesn't contain photoreceptors

54

the quarter billon photoreceptors found in the neural layer are of two types-

rods and cones

55

dim light and peripheral vision receptors

rods

56

sensitive to light, but they do not provide sharp images or color vision

rods

57

receptors for bright light and provide high resolution color vision

cones

58

lateral to the blind spot of each eye, and located precisely at the eyes posterior pole is an oval region called

macula lutea

59

minute pit in the center of the mascula lutea

fovea centralis

60

only cones in this area

fovea centralis

61

posterior segment of the eye is felled with a clear gel called

vitreous humor

62

anterior segment is filled of the eye is filled with

aqueous humor

63

clear fluid similar in composition to blood plasma, found in the eye

aqueous humor

64

biconvex, transparent, flexible and avascular

lens

65

focal point is in front of the retina

myopic (nearsighted)

66

focal point is behind retina

hyperopic (farsighted)

67

contains perilymph

scala vestibule and scala tympani

68

contains endolymph

scala media

69

pinna auricle

the external ear

70

another for the rim of the ear

helix

71

which part of the ear contains cartilage

external ear

72

which part of the external ear does not contain cartilage

lobule

73

extends from the auricle to the ear drug

external auditory meatus

74

canal lined with skin bearing hairs

external auditory meatus

75

contains sebaceous glands and ceremonious glands which produce ear wax

external auditory meatus

76

ear drum

tympanic membrane

77

thin connective tissue membrane of external ear

tympanic membrane

78

lined by skin on the external surface and mucus on the internal surface

tympanic membrane

79

like a flattened cone with the apex located internally

tympanic membrane

80

extends from the ear drum laterally to the round and oval window internally to the round and oval window internally

middle ear

81

extends form the middle ear to the nasopharynx. helps to equalize pressure in the middle ear cavity with external air pressure

pharyngotympanic tube

82

the three bones that make up the inner ear

malleus, incus, stapes

83

lateral bone on the middle ear

malleus

84

middle bone of the middle ear

incus

85

medial bone of the middle ear

stapes

86

where do the bones of the middle ear rest

oval window

87

two tiny skeletal muscles that contract reflexively in response to loud sound in order to minimize damage to the hearing receptor

tensor tympani and stapedius

88

the internal ear is also called the

labyrinth

89

filled with perilymph

bony labyrinth

90

three regions of the bony labyrinth

vestibule, semicircular canal, cochlea

91

lies within the perilympth of the bony labyrinth and filled with endolymph

membranous labyrinth

92

the regions of the membranous labyrinth

saccule and utricle

93

the saccule and utricle houses equilibrium receptor regions called that respond to gravity

maculae

94

canals that are perpendicular to each other

semicircular canals

95

each duct of the semicircular canal has a enlarged swelling at one end called

ampulla

96

ampulla's house an equilibrium receptor region called that respond to rotation of the head

crista ampullaris

97

twisted about 2 1/2 times

cochlea

98

cochlea contains the organ of hearing called

oragn of corti

99

# of waves within a given time period

frequency

100

higher frequency =

higher pitch

101

degree of loudness

amplitude

102

higher amplitude =

louder sound