Anatomy and Phys Final

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1

axial part of body

Head, neck, and trunk

2

appendicular part

limbs

3

dorsal cavity

brain and spinal cord

4

ventral cavity

all body organs(visceral)

5

Ventral Cavity has two divisions:

thoracic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity

6

thoracic cavity

surrounded by ribs and muscles

7

abdominopelvic cavity

2 parts:
abdominal- stomach, spleen, liver
pelvic- bladder, reproductive organs, & rectum

8

serous fluid

secreted for lubrication
prevents painful friction

9

cutaneous membrane

SKIN
-covers body surface

10

mucous membrane

lines the body cavities open to the exterior

11

serous membrane

line body cavities closed to the exterior- internal

12

Abdomino Pelvic Regions: 4 quads
Right Upper Quadrant

Liver, gallbladder

13

Right lower quadrant

secum, appendix

14

Left Upper Quadrant

stomach

15

Left Lower Quadrant

intestines

16

Right hypochondriac region

Liver & gallbladder

17

Right Lumbar region

ascending colon

18

Right illiac region

cecum & appendix

19

epigastric region

stomach

20

umbilical region

small intestine and transverse colon

21

hypogastric(pubic) region

urinary bladder

22

Left hypochondriac region

diaphragm

23

Left lumbar region

descending colon

24

Left illiac region

initial part of sigmoid colon

25

Most abundant inorganic compound in human body?

Water

26

carbohydrates

sugars & startches
contain CHO

27

Monosaccharides

Glucose( most prevelant, all carbs usually broken into this)
Fructose
Galactose
Deoxyribose, Ribose

28

Disaccharides

too large to get into cells- broken down into mono.
-Sucrose
-Maltose
-Lactose

29

Polysaccharides

Larger & insoluble
-Glycogen
-starch

30

Function of Carbs?!

immediate energy source

31

Lipids

triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids

32

triglycerides

3 fatty acid chains and 1 glycerol
-insulator/long term energy source

33

Phospholipids

-2 fatty acid chains and 1 glycerol- one chain is replaced by a phosphorus group

34

Phospholipids are AMPITHATIC.. this means?

one side loves water the other side hates it!
- have a polar head- hydrophillic
- non-poloar tail- hydrophobic

35

Function of phospholipids?

building membranes

36

Steroids

-mostly hydrophobic
-most known: cholesterol

37

cholesterol

essential for life but too much--> arteriosclerosis
Needed for: cell membrane structure, making steroid hormones, & making bile salts

38

Prostaglandins

-Makes sure pain signals get to brain.
- aids in: blood clotting, inflammation, contractions, regulation of BP, etc.

39

collagen

gives strength to bones, tendons, and ligaments

40

keratin

structural protein of hair and nails

41

diffusion

molecules move from area of high concentration to low concentration

42

osmosis

diffusion of solvent, usually H2O down a diffusion gradient

43

hyposmotic

one solution has less solute on one side of membrane

44

hypersmotic

one solution has more solute on one side of membrane

45

hypotonic

con. of solutes outside the cell< con. of solutes inside the cell.. SWELLING

46

hypertonic

con. of solutes outside the cell> con. of solutes inside the cell.. SHRINKING

47

fluid mosaic model

everything is constantly moving- thin double layer of phospholipids

48

cholesterol

flat, makes membrane rigid & less fluid
- too much and cells lose flexibility

49

proteins two types:
integral

firmly in bilayer- most transmembrane(go all thru)
-must have hydrophobic/hydrophillic regions
-mainly transport(carriers or channels)

50

peripheral

-attatch loosely to proteins/lipids
-some are enzymes, many glycoproteins

51

Some cells have too many glcoproteins that they are literally "sugar coated"

glycocalyx

52

Microvilli

-increase surface area for absorption- apical surface
-fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane

53

Cell Junctions

1)Tight junctions

tightest way to attatch--> waterproof
-impermeable seal, prevents leakage

54

2) Desmosomes

anchoring junctions, prevents tearing and decreases pulling forces
-found in: skin, heart, muscle, uterus

55

3) Gap Junctions

communication allowed through hollow center of donut proteins (allows ions and mol. thru)

56

Membrane Transport

Simple diffusion

non-polar molecules diffuse right thru membrane
ex: CO2, O2, vitamins, etc.
"like dissolves like"

57

Facilitated diffusion

too big molecules move by: Protein carrier molecule
no energy required
ex: glucose

58

Osmosis

water passes freely thru lipid bilayer
goes from hypotonic--> hypertonic

59

filtration

caused by hydrostatic pressure-pushes molecules through
- urine formation

60

Primary active transport

-requires energy; uses membrane pump fueled by ATP to move molecules against concentration gradient
ex: Na+/K+ pump

61

Secondary active transport

molecules hitch ride with other mol. being pumped across membrane by primary active trans.
ex:glucose rides with Na ions

62

Vesicular transport

requires energy, transport large molecules

63

Endocytosis

plasma membrane infolds and pinches off inside cell. three types: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptior-medicared endocytosis

64

Phagocytosis

"cell eating"
used by macrophages and WBC's

65

Pinocytosis

"cell drinking" absorbs nutrients
occurs in most cells

66

Receptor-Medicated Endocytosis

very selective, waits for signal.
ex: insulin, cholesterol, iron

67

Exocytosis

substances inside cell --> outside
ex: Nt's, mucus secretion, cell waste

68

cytoplasm

region between plasma membrane and nucleus; 90% of cell activity occurs here
-composed of: cytosol, organelles, molecules, pigments

69

Ribosomes

-site of protein synethsis, some attatched to ER some float free
-granules of protein and ribosomal RNA

70

Rough ER

covered in ribosomes that constantly attach and detach
-most abundant: secretory cells, liver cells

71

Smooth ER

-No role in protein synthesis; contains integral proteins and enzymes that do many things

72

Lysosomes

bags of acid, powerful digestive enzymes
break down stored glycogen, non useful tissue, and bone

73

peroxisomes

gets rid of free radicals

74

Golgi Apparatus

series of stacked/flat membranes
traffic director
modifies, concentrates proteins and fats made in the ER

75

Nucleus

largest of the cytoplasm's organelles

76

Epithelial cells

Protector

77

Basement Membrane

made up of basal lamina and reticular lamina
Function: reinforce epithelium, less wear n tear

78

Basal Lamina

sticky sheet of glycoproteins secreted by skin cells

79

Reticular Lamina

strong as steel, layer of collagen fibers
part of underlying CT

80

Other char. of epithelium

avascular, innervated, regenerative, nourished by diffusion of nutrients

81

squamous

flat, minimal barrier allows molecules through

82

cuboidal

square, absorption and secretion
contains microvilli

83

columnar

tall/long- more absorption & secretion
busiest of all

84

simple squamous epitheium

Thin and permeable, single layer of flat cells
allows diffusion
ex: kidney, lungs

85

Simple cuboidal epithelium

flat/square, secretion & absorption
Location: small glands(exocrine), ovaries

86

Simple columnar epi.

very tall busy cells, secretion & absorption
Location: GI tract

87

Psuedostratified Columnar epi.

looks like multiple different layers, but not. just different sizes.
-Fx: secretion
Location: ducts--> trachea

88

Stratified squamous epi.

multiple flat thin cells
fx: protection from abrasion
location: lines esophagus, mouth

89

Stratified Columnar epi.

tall- secretion & protection
Location: rare- male urethra

90

Transitional Epi.

cells can change shape, allows stretching w/o rupturing
Location: ureters, bladder, part of urethra

91

Endocrine glands

produce hormones- structurally diverse

92

Exocrine glands

secrete products onto skin or into body cav.
type: mucous, sweat, oil, salivary, pancreas

93

gooblet cells

only single celled gland, in intestine and respiratory tracts
produce mucinin and H2O- protection/lubrication

94

simple tubular

intestinal glands

95

simple branched

stomach(gastric) glands

96

simple branched alveolar

sebacous oil glands

97

compound tubular

duodenal glands of small instestine

98

compound alveolar

mammary glands

99

compound tubuloalveolar

salivary glands- biggest exocrine gland

100

All CT comes from an embryonic tissue called:

Mesenchyme

101

CT has three main elements:

Ground substance(matrix)

fills space between cells

102

Fibers:
Collagen fibers

form thick bundles, strong as steel

103

elastic fibers

stretchy, long and thin

104

reticular fibers

surround small blood vessels
many are in basement membrane

105

Loose CT

a) areolar

fxn: cushoning and immunity, stores fat
found in hypodermis
MOST WIDELY DISTRIBUTED
packing material of body- protects

106

b) adipose

adipocytes packed tightly but many more here
found in hypodermis/subcuneatus tissue
FXN: shock absorber, energy storage, insulator

107

c) reticular

thin collagen fibers, housing and producing WBS

108

Dense CT

a)dense regular

closely packed bundles of collagen, resistant to pulling forces
1)tendons- muscle to bone
2)aponeurosis- sheet like tendons attach to bones or muscle
3)ligaments- attach bones to bone @ joints

109

b) dense irrelgular

similar to DR- collagen bundles thicker and irregularly arranged
found where tension is exerted: dermis of skin, fibrous joint capsules, GI tract

110

Characteristics of cartilage

tough, flexible, avascular, not-innervated, very firm
-produced by chondroblasts later become chondrocytes

111

Types of Cartilage

Hyaline

most abundant in body, blue white glassy, contains tons of collagen fibers, covers ends of long bones, absorbs pressure
-found @- tip of nose, connects ribs to sternum, trachea and larnyx

112

Elastic

more elastin, less collagen
found in places that bend easily: Pinna of ear and epiglottis

113

Fibrocartilage

less firm than hyaline, absorbs compressive shock, resists tension and heavy pressure
-forms inter-vertebral discs and found in pubic symphysis and discs of knee joints

114

Epidermis

epithelial- outer/ protective layer

115

Dermis

fibrous CT- vascularized

116

Hypodermis

-below skin, is subcutaneous tissue
-mostly adipose tissue- fat storage
FXN: insulator, shock absorber, anchors skin to muscle

117

Cells in epidermis:

Melanocytes- in deepest layer
Keratinocytes

118

Langerhan cells

made in bone marrow, immunity

119

Merkel cells

nerve endings- merkel discs; is a touch receptor

120

Layers of epi.

Stratum Basale

Deepest layer, cells replicating here
youngest kertainocytes

121

Stratum Spinosum

prickley layer, several layers thick, many desmosomes, keratinocytes flatten, melanin granules- UV protection, Langerhan cells

122

Stratum Granulosum

3-5 layers, cells flattened here

123

Stratum Lucidum

clear layer- absent in thin skin

124

Stratum Corneum

cells are dead here- most superficial layer
20-30 layers thick- 3/4 of epi
primary protection- dead keratinocytes

125

Dermis is a strong flexible CT that contains:

-collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
-macrophages, mast cells WBC's
-fibroblasts, oil and sweat glands

126

Dermis composed of two layers:

1. Papillary layer

loose areolar CT
superior surface- dermal papillae
contains free nerve endings and touch receptors

127

2. Reticular layer

makes dermis thick- 80% of thickness, irr. dense fibrous CT
pockets of fat cells and thick bundles of collagen- used for strength

128

BONES

diaphysis

shaft- thick compact bone filled with yellow bone marrow

129

epiphysis

ends of bone
outside: compact bone; inside: spongy bone
covered in Hyaline cartilage

130

periosteum

shiny white double layered membrane covers surface of bone but not @ joint surfaces

131

Periosteum has two layers:

-outer layer
-inner layer

- dense irr. CT(fibrous layer)

-osteoblasts- make bone; osteoclasts; destroy bone

132

sharpey's fibers

collagen fibers, forms fibrous layer into bone matrix
attaches bone to periosteum

133

endosteum

delicate membrane, covers trabaculae(honey comb)
lines canal of diaphysis
osteoblasts and osteaclasts

134

Spongy bone

trabeculae

resist stress, osteocytes connected by canalicuil

135

Bone growth requires

Growth Hormone
sex hormones: end bone growth

136

Fractures

non-displaced
displaced

bones aligned
bones out of alignment

137

complete fracture

bone broken through

138

linear

parallel to long axis

139

transverse

perpendicular to long axis

140

synarthroses

immovable joint

141

amphiarthroses

slightly movable

142

diarthroses

freely movable joint

143

fibrous

immovable/slightly movable

144

cartilaginous

rigid/slightly movable

145

synovial

freely movable

146

Fibrous joints

1) Sutures-tightly bind bones
2) syndesmoses- permanent straps to bones down
3) Gomphoses- sounds like "gum" only in aveloar socket

147

Cartilagenous

1)synchondroses- bone 2 bone joint, virtually all synarthrotic- immovable ex: epiphyseal plates
2)symphyses- hyaline cartilage fused with pad of fibrocartilage; limited movement, shock absorption

148

synovial joints

bones separated by cavity filled with synovial fluid
- diarthrotic- alot of movement

149

Synovial joints 5 distinguishing features:

1)Articular cartilage

glassy, smooth, hyaline cartilage, abosorbs compression

150

2) Joint (synovial) cavity

filled with synnovial fluid

151

3) Articular capsule

2 layers:
external layer- tough, fibrous dense irr. CT(strengthens)
inner layer- synovial membrane composed of lose CT

152

4)Synovial fluid - also found in articular cartilage

viscous- like egg white
as joint compresses, it oozes out
removes cell debris

153

reinforcing ligaments

strengthens joints
-extracapsular- outside capsule
-intracapsular- covered with syn. membrane

154

Bursa

flattened sacs, lined with synovial membrane
provide lubrication and padding
bunion- enlarged bursa
bursitis- painful enlarged bursa

155

what is the fxn of muscle?

convert chem. energy into mechanical energy

156

epimysium

covering surround entire muscle; dense irr. CT

157

fascicle

group of muscle fibers
skeletal muscle made of lots of fascicles

158

perimysium

covering around fascicle(wraps)

159

Muscle Fiber

same as muscle cells- run entire length of muscle

160

Endomysium

CT that surround surrounds each individual muscle fiber

161

Myofibrils striated because?

alternating actin and myosin fibers

162

H-zone

lighter stripe in middle of A band(relaxed muscles only)

163

M line

bisects H zone and A band

164

Z disc

Bisects I band

165

sarcomere

region between z discs- end to end form: myofibril

166

myofilaments

fibers w/in a sarcomere
thick filaments: myosin- forms A band
thin filaments: actin- forms I band & extends to A band

167

Protein: Nebulin

forms Z discs and anchors thin filaments- connects adjacent myofibrils

168

Desmin

fine protein strands- form M line- hold adjacent think filaments together

169

Myosin

- 2 heads(business end of myosin)-link thick and thin filaments together
-and a long tail

170

Troponin

interacts with Ca+; 3 polypeptide complex:
-TnI- binds actin
-TnT- binds to tropomyosin
-TnC- binds Ca+ ions

171

afferent nerves

taking sensory input to brain

172

somatic afferent fibers

skin, muscles, joints(synovial)

173

Visceral afferent fibers

anything connected to organs in whole ventral body cavity

174

efferent

taking impulse from brain to the CNS

175

somatic voluntary nerves

muscles

176

autonomic involuntary nerves

sympathetic- fight or flight
parasympathetic- rest and digest

177

Neuroglia of CNS

astrocytes

most abundant of glial cells, allows neurons to move, anchors neurons to capillaries

178

microglia

protective/defensive cells
equal to langerhan cells
sense trash and eats it up

179

Ependymal cells

line cavaties of brain and spinal cord- circulate CSF and keeps it moving

180

oligodendrocytes

form myelin sheath around CNS fibers, insulating cover

181

Neuroglia of PNS

satellite cells

function unknown, surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia

182

schwann cells

partner to oligodendrocytes, wraps around large nerves
insulator
forms myelin

183

dendrites

branching extensions of cell body, increase surface area
transmits incoming info to axon hillock

184

axon

projection of cell body; no ER or golgi
relies on cell body for protein synthesis
constant two way traffic of molecules:
anterograde or retrograde

185

Anterograde

from cell body to terminal
ex: mitochondria, replacement mol.
transported by kinesin

186

Retreograde

from terminal to cell body
ex: molecules ready for degradation and recycling
tranported by dyenin

187

myelin sheath

increases transmission of nerve impulses down axon
formed by Schwann cells

188

White matter

myelinated fibers

189

gray matter

unmyelinated fibers

190

Multipolar neurons

99 percent of neurons
numerous dendrites & 3 or more cell processes

191

Bipolar neurons

2 process: axon and dendrite
RARE: senesory organs- retina of eye and olfactory mucosa

192

Unipolar neurons

1 process emerges from cell body
most sensory neurons in PNS

193

Saltatory conduction

current flowing faster between nodes of ranvier of heavily myelinated axons

194

Group A nerve fibers

Skin, skeletal muscles, joints
has large diameter and thick myelin sheaths

195

Group B fibers

autonomic nervous system(sensory n motor fibers)
medium diameter, lightly myelinated

196

Group C fibers

small diameter/ unmyelinated
no saltatory conduction

197

synaptic vesicles

sacs containing NT's

198

@ NMJ the nt is?

Acetlycholine

199

motor end plate

dimple in sarcolemma
-AcH receptors

200

synapses

release and retrieve NT's
2 parts: nerve terminal & receptor regions(special Nt receptors)

201

Smooth muscle

longitudinal layer

sheets run parallel;
contraction--> dialation--> shortening

202

circular layer

contraction--> constriction--> elongation

203

Main char. of smooth muscle are:

-No NMJ- too tight
-innervated: autonomic nerves- not in control
-wide synaptic cleft- diffuse junctions
-no t tubules, no striations, no sarcomeres
-does have thick/thin filaments-contract like slinky

204

The CNS

Telencephalon

cerebrum
cerebral hemispheres (cortex, white matter, basal nuclei)
lateral ventricles

205

Diencephalon

thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus and retina
third ventricle

206

Mesenchephalon

brain stem/ midbrain
cerebral aqueduct

207

metenchephalon

brain stem- Pons
Cerebellum
Part of 4th ventricle

208

Myelencephalon

brain stem: medulla oblongata
part of 4th ventricle

209

interventricular foramen

connect lateral ventricles with third vent.

210

cerebral aqueduct

connects 3rd vent. to 4th vent.

211

CSF

made by: choroid plexi
forms liquid cushion, floats brain

212

cerebral cortex

gray matter, billions of neurons

213

Primary motor cortex

location: precentral gyrus AREA 4
neurons are large aka: pyriamidal
Fxn: concious control of voluntary mvmnt. of skeletal muscles
damage: loss of contralateral control

214

Premotor cortex

Location: AREA 6(frontal lobe)
-memory bank for skilled motor activites
ex:typing
-fxn: controls learned motor skills
-trauma: relearn how to do everything but body is actually capable

215

Broca's area

Area 44 & 45
Fxn: controls muscles needed for speech(tongue lips throat)
Damage: broca's aphasia- can understand language but cant form understandable language

216

Wernicke's area

AREA 22
Fxn: where speech is interpreted/understood & coherent speech is produced.
-connected to broca's by: arcuate fasiculus
damage: word salad; all mixed up and inability to understand language

217

Frontal Eye Field

Area 4/6
controls voluntary eye movement

218

critical areas- sensory input

Primary Somatosensory cortex

-1st places sensory info is processed
-location: frontal lobe AREAS 1-3
-fxn: recieves AFFERENT info from Somatosensory receptors(skin, joints, muscles)

219

SS Association cortex

-uses stored memory to understand sensation
-location: Post. to primary SSC AREAS 5&7
-fxn: integrates senesory info from primary SSC so input is understood
-damage: must look at object to understand it

220

Primary visual cortex

location: occipital lobe (area 17)
FXN: sensory input from retinas
damage: cortical blindness

221

Visual Association area

location: next to occipital lobe (AREA 18)
FXN: interprets visual stimuli using stored memory for recognition (ex: face)

222

Auditory area

recieves sensory info from inner ear; pitch/loudness

223

Auditory association area

uses stored memory to interpret sounds
ex: music vs. thunder vs. train

224

Olfactory cortex

smell; different odors

225

Gustatory cortex

perception of taste

memory of smell and taste: Limbic system

226

vestibular cortex

Balance

227

Prefrontal cortex

makes you who you are; intellect, personality, ideas, judgement- matures slowly
trauma: mental/personality disorders(Phineas Gage)

228

White Matter of Cerebellar Hemis.

Commisures

connect gray matter of both hemispheres
ex: corpus callosum- connects left and right hemispheres

229

Association fibers

lil connections w/in hemispheres
connect diff. parts of same hemispheres

230

Projection fibers

project into/out of brain
connects cortex- rest of nervous system

231

internal capsule

connects cortex to lower CNS- as fibers get closer to cortext they fan out- corona radiata

232

Brain Nuclei

Telencephalon: corpus striatum

caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus

233

amygdala

FXN: entire input from cerebral cortex
-no direct access to motor pathways
-starting/stopping/monitoring movement(&intensity)
-multi-task

234

Thalamus

relay between a variety of subcortical areas and cerebral cortex
-regulating sleep and wakefulness
ROLE: mediates sensation, motor activities, learning and memory

235

Hypothalamus

7 important FXNS:

1- regulates auto. nervous system( BP, heart rate)
2- Emotions- limbic system; pleasure, fear, rage
3-Body temp
4- regulates hunger/satiety
5- regulates water balance and thirst
6- regulates sleep/wake cycles
7-control of endocrine system

236

Other hypothalamic nuclei:

SCN

light/dark cycle

237

mamillary body

recieves input from hippocampus
memory storage bank

238

arcuate nucleus

Morphine acts here to relieve pain

239

Epithalamus

pineal gland- secretes seratonin(sleep)
regulates sleep/wake cycle

240

Midbrain

Cerebral peduncles

connect midbrain to cerebellum

241

cerebral aqueduct

connects 3rd&4th ventricles
involved in pain suppresion

242

superior colliculi

visual reflect, coordinate head and eye movements

243

inferior colliculi

startle reflex- SOUND

244

substantia niagra

contains melanin that can form dopamine
degenration: Parkinsans

245

Red nuclei

relay center for desecending motor pathways

246

Pons

bulges out-pyramidal tracts; relay fribers from motor cortex to cerebellum
cranial nerves originate here:
Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial Nerve

247

Medulla Oblongata

-formed by des. corticospinal tracts- deccusation of pyramids right before spinal cord

248

Infer. cerebellar peduncles

connect medulla to cerebellum

249

Cranial nerves in Medulla:

Hypoglossal
Vagus
Glossopharyngeal
Accesory
Vestibulochoclear

250

Functions of Medullar nuclei overlap hypothalamus:

-cardiac center
-vasomotor center
-respiratory center

*carries out instructions from hypothalamus

251

Cerebellum

fxn: integrate fine tuned motor activity
-connected to brain by: cerebellar peduncles
-IPSILATERAL control

252

The limbic system "emotional brain"

hippocampus- long term memory
amygdala- memory, agression, fear, etc.
mamillary body- short term mem.

253

meninges

cover and protect CNS, blood vessels
contain CSF

254

Dura Mater

tough mother- leather
2 layers-
*periosteal layer- attached inner skull
*meningeal layer-external covering of brain

255

Falx cerebri

runs along long. fissure

256

tentorium cereblli

Runs between cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres

257

Arachnoid mater

beneath is subarachnoid space(CSF)
web like extensions attactch to pia mater
-arachnoid villus- return CSF to blood

258

Pia Mater

"gentle mother"
delicate with tons of blood vessels

259

Spinal Cord

Post. Horns

many interneurons- control lower motor neurons

260

Ant. Horns

some interneurons
nerve cell bodies of somatic motor neurons

261

Lateral Horns

cell bodies: visceral motor neurons(sympathetic- ANS)

262

Dorsal Root

afferent sensory nerve fibers carrying impulses from periphery
nerve cell bodies: sensory nerves-->dorsal root ganglion

263

ventral root

contain somatic and autonomic efferents

264

Mechanoreceptors

nerve impulses- mechanical forces
ex: touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, itch

265

Thermoreceptors

temp. changes

266

Photoreceptors

@ retina of eye- respond to light energy

267

chemoreceptora

aromas, tastes, blood chem.

268

nociceptors

Pain- all receptors can be this if overstimulated

269

exteroceptors

sens. to stimuli outside body
touch pressure pain

270

interoceptors

sens. to stuff w/in body- chem changes, temp, tissue stretching

271

proprioceptors

internal stimuli found only in:
skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, periosteum

272

sensory neurons

temp/pain

273

Tactile/Merkel discs

light pressure/ touch

274

Hair follicle receptors

motion of hair follicles

275

Encapsulated dendritic endings

Messiner's corpsucle

touch( in skin)

276

Pacinian corpsucle

vibration in skin

277

rufinni endings

stretch, flattened

278

muscle spindles

tells brain what muscle is doing right now

279

Golgi tendon organs

tension- put on tendon

280

joint kinesthetic receptors

degree/angle of synovial joints

281

diplopia

double vision

282

strabismus

(cross eyes)

283

esotrophia

one eye facing inward

284

exotrophia

one eye is facing outward

285

hypertrophia

eye tilting up

286

hypotrophia

eye pointing down

287

Outer fibrous layer composed of:

Sclera and cornea

288

Sclera

white of eye
tough/protective coat
anchors eye muscles

289

Cornea

clear- avascularized
many pain receptors
can be transplanted

290

Vascular layer(uvea) composed of:

choroid
cilliary body
suspensory ligament
iris

291

choroid

vascular
brown color, absorbs light
provides nutrients & O2

292

cillary body

encircles lens-smooth muscle, controls lens shape
forms cilliary processes that excrete- aqueous humor(anterior chamber)

293

suspensory ligament

connects cilliary processes to lens

294

Iris

colored part of eye
hole in middle= pupil

295

bright light or close vision causes pupil to:

Contract ---> constriction of pupil
Parasympathetic

296

distant vision/dim light causes pupil to:

contract--> dilatation of pupil
Sympathetic

297

Sensory Layer- Retina

inner layer: neural
outer layer: pigmented
has photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells(neural layer)
-optic disc-optic nerve exits eye

298

Macula lutea(yellow spot)

contains a pit: foeva
only cones located here: high visual acuity and color, bright, etc.

299

Post segment is filled with:

vitreous humor: transmits light, keeps eye's shape, last forevaaa
aqueous humor- continually formed and drained

300

Glaucoma

draining of aq. humor blocked.. increase pressure in eye- blindness