Chapter 7 Vocabulary

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Holt World History
Chapter 7
The Roman World
Grade levels:
9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade
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1

republic

a form of government which voters elect officials to run the state

2

dictator

absolute ruler

3

consuls

chief executives

4

veto

refuse to approve

5

checks and balances

prevents any one part of the government from becoming too powerful

6

praetors

elected to help the praetors

7

censors

registered citizens and appointed candidates to the Senate, and oversaw the moral conduct of all citizens

8

tribunes

officials elected by Rome's popular assemblies

9

patricians

powerful landowners who controlled the government

10

plebians

made up most of hte population and had few rights

11

equites

class of business people and landowners

12

Punic Wars

Three costly conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over the control of the Mediterranean and overseas expansion

13

Hannibal

general who led the Carthaginian Army over the Alps into Italy during the Second Punic War

14

Scipio

Roman general who defeated Carthage at the battle of Zama

15

Spartacus

led a slave revolt

16

the Gracchi

brothers who supported the farmers and were killed for their cause

17

Gaius Marius

General elected consul who brought changes to Roman political scene

18

Lucius Cornelius Sulla

marched on Rome starting a civil war and eventually ruled as dictator

19

Julius Caesar

nephew of Marius who became a popular general who eventually came to rule.

20

Gnaeus Pompey

member of the First Triumverate

21

Cleopatra

daughter of the ruling Ptolemy family put on the throne by Caesar

22

Marc Anthony

took control of Rome after Caesar's death and was an ally and a general; part of the Second Triumverate

23

Augustus (Octavian)

Title given meaning "the revered one"

24

Pax Romana

Period of Roman peace from the beginning of Augustus's reign until the death of Marcus Aurelius

25

Julio-Claudian Emperors

Relatives of Caesar who ruled for 54 years of the Pax Romana following the death of Augustus

26

Five Good Emperors

Five rulers who led Rome for almost 100 years during the Pax Romana

27

gladiators

trained fighters, usually slaves, who fought in arenas as entertainers

28

aqueducts

bridgelike structures that carry water

29

Galen

physician who wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day

30

Ptolemy

developed a system of astronomy and geography based on the belief that the sun, the planets, and the stars revolved around the earth

31

Virgil

wrote the "Aeneid"

32

Horace

wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and epistles

33

Ovid

wrote love lyrics and the "Metamorphoses"

34

Tacitus

wrote "Annals" - a history of Rome under the Julio-Claudian emperors

35

Plutarch

a Greek who wrote "Parallel Lives" describing a famous Greek that is followed by description of a Roman whose life is similar

36

rabbis

Jewish scholars who interpreted scripture and were learned in Jewish law; leaders of Jewish congregations

37

martyrs

put to death for their beliefs

38

bishops

head of the church in each city

39

patriarchs

bishops of empire cities

40

pope

patriarch of Rome took this title

41

Jesus

a Jewish teacher from Nazareth

42

inflation

rise in prices caused by a decrease in the value of money

43

Diocletian

a general in the Roman army made emperor in A.D. 284 who appointed a co-emperor

44

Constantine

became sole emperor in A.D. 324 and created a new capital city in the East called Constantinople

45

Goths

made up of western Visigoths and eastern Ostrogoths

46

Vandals

lived north of the Rhine and Danube Rivers

47

Huns

nomadic peoples from Asia who lived by raiding and plundering

48

Attila

Huns led by this general