Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through
D) second messengers
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
A) increases urine production
B) promotes dehydration
C) is produced in the adenohypophysis
D) is inhibited by alcohol
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent
A) the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
B) the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
C) the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
D) nothingall hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types
because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior
pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary
gland is through the ________.
A) hepatic portal system
B) general circulatory system
C) hypophyseal portal system
D) feedback loop
Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ________.
A) there are thousands of receptors on the cell membrane
B) the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time
C) the protein kinases are rapidly metabolized
D) during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.
A) insulin, because insulin is a small peptide
B) steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
C) growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
D) glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone
The major targets of growth hormone are ________.
A) the blood vessels
B) the adrenal glands
C) the liver
D) bones and skeletal muscles
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished
A) blocking the action of growth hormone
B) targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
C) antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin
D) slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?
A) the heart
B) the kidney
C) the skin
D) the spleen
Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.
Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?
A) extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the
B) an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP
C) second-messenger systems
D) a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cellʹs DNA
In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the
DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the
target organ. This is known as ________.
A) the cellʹs sensitivity reaction
B) cellular affinity
D) a reaction to a stressor
The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________.
A) hemoglobin A
B) hemoglobin B
C) hemoglobin F
D) hemoglobin S
Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They accomplish this by ___________________.
a. decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure Incorrect
b. stimulating the pancreas to release insulin Incorrect
c. increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure Correct
d. blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response
Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?
B) NK cell
D) polymorphonuclear cell
Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?
hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
As red blood cells age ________.
membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged
An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.
receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen
When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ________.
Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation
marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.
All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.
low blood viscosity
Place the following in correct developmental sequence:
4. late erythroblast
2, 4, 3, 1
Thromboembolic disorders ________.
include embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system
Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?
They are nucleated.
Which sequence is correct for the following events?
1. fibrinogen → fibrin
2. clot retraction
3. formation of thromboplastin
4. prothrombin → thrombin
3, 4, 1, 2
When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?
if the father is Rh-
What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?
Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?
closure of the heart valves
The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.
The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.
The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it ________.
pumps blood against a greater resistance
If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.
decreased delivery of oxygen
Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ______
causing threshold to be reached more quickly
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that ________.
the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
Foramen ovale ________.
connects the two atria in the fetal heart
The tricuspid valve is closed ________.
when the ventricle is in systole
When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.
noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.
has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium
If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid, ________.
threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase
Isovolumetric contraction ________.
refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?
Which statement best describes arteries?
All carry blood away from the heart
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.
Aldosterone will ________.
promote an increase in blood pressure
The pulse pressure is ________.
systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
Which of the following is true about veins?
Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs
Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?
Peripheral resistance ________.
increases as blood viscosity increases
Blood flow to the skin
increases when environmental temp rises
Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across capillary walls?
hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is
significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power if the vessel radius.
The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is
shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or ater sever vomiting or diarrhea
Factors that aid venous return include all except
The velocity of blood flow is
slowest in capillaries because the total cross-sectional area is the greatest
Select the correct statement about blood flow
Blood flow through the entire vascular system is equivalent to cardiac output
Where in the body would you find low oxygen levels causing vasoconstriction and high levels causing vasodilation?
The baroreceptors in the cartoid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?
changes in arterial pressure
The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________.
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.
skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.
The lymphatic capillaries are ________.
more permeable than blood capillaries
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.
Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.
efferent lymphatic vessels
Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.
severe localized edema distal to the blockage
Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue
Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.
Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?
The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not
directly fight antigens
Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.
Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.
islets of Langerhans
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.
Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
red blood cells
Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue
A and C
Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.
The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ________.
Regulatory T cells ________.
may function in preventing autoimmune reactions
Select the correct definition about tissue grafts
Isografts are between identical twins
Which of the following does not describe antigens
antigens only come from microbes
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
C) gastric juice
Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
A) small molecules
B) reactivity with an antibody
C) contain many repeating chemical units
D) inhibit production of antibodies
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by ________.
A) reducing its size
B) immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
C) forming of a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell
D) producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.
A) natural killer cells
B) T lymphocytes
C) B lymphocytes
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.
Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
A) immune complex hypersensitivity
C) cytotoxic hypersensitivity
D) allergic contact dermatitis
Innate immune system defenses include ________.
A) B cells
B) T cells
C) plasma cells
A) is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous
B) decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy
C) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
D) causes the liver to release large amounts of iron, which seems to inhibit bacterial replication
Helper T cells ________.
A) bind tightly to target cells and release a lymphotoxin called perforin
B) often function to decrease the immune response
C) release B7 proteins
D) function in the adaptive immune system activation
Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?
A) They are also called type IV hypersensitivities.
B) They are are adaptive immune responses to disease organisms.
C) They include allergic contact dermatitis.
D) They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.
Natural killer (NK) cells ________.
A) are also called cytotoxic T cells
B) are a type of phagocyte
C) are cells of the adaptive immune system
D) can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
Select the correct statement about antigens.
A) "Self-antigens" is another name for incomplete antigens.
B) The largest type of antigen is called a hapten.
C) Only small antigens exhibit reactivity.
D) One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.
Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?
A) B cell
B) helper T cell
C) cytotoxic T cell
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.
What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?
A) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
B) protects cells that have not yet been infected by bacteria
C) activates the complement mechanism
D) activates the inflammatory process
The loudness of a person's voice depends on the ________.
force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
0.5 to 1 micrometer thick
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________.
decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________.
increase of carbon dioxide
Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration.
the ventral respiratory group
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?
Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
partial pressure gradient
Possible causes of hypoxia include ________.
too little oxygen in the atmosphere
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?
Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta.
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
medulla and pons
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Which center is located in the pons?
pontine respirator group (PRG)
Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control.
A) The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration.
B) The ventral respiratory group (expiratory center) neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to establish the
pattern of breathing.
C) The pontine respirator group (PRG) continuously stimulates the medulla to provide inspiratory drive.
D) The dorsal respiratory group (inspiratory center) is contained within the pons.
The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________.
A) the smooth muscles of the lung
B) the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone
C) the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs
D) surface tension from pleural fluid, negative pressure, and atmospheric pressure on the thorax
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because ________.
A) the temperature is lower at higher altitudes
B) the basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
C) the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes
D) the concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
Which of the disorders is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. These reactions are called?
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basi layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
the capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the what
which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme rich panacreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
plicae circulares and intestinal villi
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
Peristaltic waves are ________.
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
chief cells of the stomach
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
A. produce gas
B. synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
C. synthesize vitamins C and D
D. absorb bilirubin
B. synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ______ .
D. the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
B) pancreatic juice
C) intestinal juice
D) gastric juice
How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ______.
Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it _________.
Is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones.
When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly ________.
Anabolism includes reactions in which
larger molecules are built from smaller ones
The primary function of cellular respiration is to _________.
Break down food molecules and generate ATP.
Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ___.
Transferred to a keto acid.
Gluconeogenisis is the process in which
glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursers
Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves:
Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state.
As the body progresses from the absorptive state to the postabsorptive state, only the ___=
The amount of ___ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.
Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram?
Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include:
Excessive amounts of protein in the diet.
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability
properties of the ________.
A) loop of Henle
B) glomerular filtration membrane
C) collecting duct
D) distal convoluted tubule.
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to ________.
A) a decrease in the production of ADH
B) an increase in the production of ADH
C) an increase in the production of aldosterone
D) a decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma
The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.
A) when the peritubular capillaries are dilated
B) when the pH of the urine decreases
C) by a decrease in the blood pressure
D) when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.
A) the secretion of drugs
B) the secretion of acids and ammonia
C) reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water
D) regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
A) the design and size of the podocytes
B) the thickness of the capillary endothelium
C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
D) the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries
The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
A) glomerular endothelium
C) renal fascia
D) basement membrane
The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
A) active transport
C) solvent drag
D) cotransport with sodium ions
The macula densa cells respond to ________.
B) antidiuretic hormone
C) changes in pressure in the tubule
D) changes in solute content of the filtrate
The fluid in the glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a
significant amount of ________.
D) plasma protein
Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.
A) facilitated diffusion
B) passive transport
D) secondary active transport
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is ________.
A) the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
B) the glomerular hydrostatic pressure
C) the capsular hydrostatic pressure
D) the myogenic mechanism
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
A) The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
B) Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.
C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
D) The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult
Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
A) relative permeability of the distal tubule to water
B) impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
C) transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle
D) the presence of ADH
Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?
A) calcium ions
B) potassium ions
C) hydrogen ions
D) sodium ions
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
A) enhance atrial contractions
B) activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism
C) prevent pH changes caused by organic acids
D) reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________.
A) a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids
B) a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
C) a runner has completed a very long marathon
D) the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions
Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
A) the lungs and the kidneys
B) the adrenal glands and the testes
C) the thyroid gland and the heart
D) the stomach and the liver
The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.
A) the potassium ion content in the renal tubule cells
B) the pH of the ICF
C) intracellular sodium levels
D) potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system.
The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ________.
A) requires active transport
B) is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
C) requires ATP for the transport to take place
D) involves filtration
Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
C) nucleic acid
Which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
A) Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.
B) Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid shifts in the body.
C) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
D) There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.
Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?
C) antidiuretic hormone
D) atrial natriuretic peptide
The regulation of sodium ________.
A) is due to specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus
B) is linked to blood pressure
C) involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion in the kidneys
D) involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion concentration
Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance.
A) The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid.
B) Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate.
C) Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion.
D) The kidneys are the most important mechanism for eliminating all bicarbonate ions.
A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
A) respiratory acidosis
B) metabolic acidosis
C) metabolic alkalosis
D) respiratory alkalosiS