Micro exam C
The immune system is often divided into separate parts which are ________ (non-Specific) and _______ (specific)
Innate and adaptive
The fundamental difference between the two is that the innate system is not directed at a specific invader, while the ______ system is a "tailored" response to a specific invader.
The distinction between the two systems is artificial and some components can be found to have a role in both ________
Most of the passive defenses are ________ or ________ barriers and are often referred to as the first line of defense.
Mechanical and Chemical
some examples of Mechanical Barriers are: Name 3
Skin, Mucus membranes and cilia
Some examples of Chemical Barriers are: name 3
Mucus, Sweat, and Lysozyme
The most elaborate innate immune response is:
Inflammation has 3 definite signs and 1 symptom what are they?
1. Redness, Pain, Heat
All the reactions caused by inflammation are chemicals produced by:
Tissue Damage or Death
Tissue Damage releases chemical signals that cause specialized tissue cells known as:
To degranulate the granules contain irritant chemicals such as:
Histamine, serotonin, Brady kninis and substance P.
Irritant chemicals cause the local blood vessels to:
Dilate and become leaky
Other chemicals in granules are attractants called?
The chemotactic agent chemicals cause specialized white blood cells called:
Neutrophils and Macrophages.
Vasodilation and vascular leakiness result in:
Redness, heat and swelling
Pain in the body is caused by:
In the even of a viral infection, a chemical defense is produced. The chemical is called?
There are at least three types of interferon, What are they?
Alpha, Beta, and Gamma
Alpha and Beta cause cells to:
Produce blocking proteins
Gamma interferons act to?
Interferon does _____ to help the infected cell.
What is the group of proteins that is another chemical defense mechanism that is found in the blood?
The ________ proteins can work as part of the innate system, or they can work in concert with the adaptive immune system
Several chemicals associated with bacteria can cause an activation of the complement "cascade" one group is chemicals contained in the ?
A second activation pathway to the compliment relies on ________ which is produced by the _______
When a complement is activated, a number of different reactions occur. The most important reactions are: there are 3
Enhance inflammation, opsonization, and cytolysis
There is a specialized cell that patrols the body looking for things that do not belong, they are consider to be ____ Cells
NK (natural Killer)
Adaptive Immunity is known as
Adaptive immunity gets it name because it ______
to the specific attacker.
The adaptive immune system has two types of responses, what are they?
Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI)
Antibody Mediated Immunity (AMI)
The goal of the adaptive immune responses is to destroy or inactivate anything that is?
Adaptive immune responses result from the activities of the?
Lymphocytes are manufactured in the ________
There are two main classes of lymphocytes, what are they?
B Cells (B Lymphocytes)
T cells (T Lymphocytes)
B Lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the?
T Lymphocytes become Immunocompetent in the?
___ lymphocytes are involved in the CMI response and the AMI response.
___ lymphocytes are involved in only the AMI response
Adaptive immune responses are not directed against pathogens they are directed against: there are 2
Not Self and Antigens
______ tend to be better at inducing the immune response than _______ or Carbohydrates.
Some chemicals are not antigenic by themselves, but become antigenic when combined with _______ in the body. Such chemicals are known as _______
CMI-- to activate the cell mediated system _________ or __________cells must become antigen presenting cells (APC)
Antigen presenting cells stimulate a class of T cells known as _ ______
T helper also known as ____ cells
T helper cells stimulate a special class of T cells which are known as:
Tcytotoxic are also known as ____ cells
Tcytotoxic cells are directed against cells of the body that carry:
Tcytotoxic cells are considered dangerous and are destroyed by the T cell using ________ and _______
perforins and Gramzymes