Micro exam C

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created 7 years ago by delder1989
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1

The immune system is often divided into separate parts which are ________ (non-Specific) and _______ (specific)

Innate and adaptive

2

The fundamental difference between the two is that the innate system is not directed at a specific invader, while the ______ system is a "tailored" response to a specific invader.

adaptive

3

The distinction between the two systems is artificial and some components can be found to have a role in both ________

systems.

4

Most of the passive defenses are ________ or ________ barriers and are often referred to as the first line of defense.

Mechanical and Chemical

5

some examples of Mechanical Barriers are: Name 3

Skin, Mucus membranes and cilia

6

Some examples of Chemical Barriers are: name 3

Mucus, Sweat, and Lysozyme

7

The most elaborate innate immune response is:

Inflammation

8

Inflammation has 3 definite signs and 1 symptom what are they?

1. Redness, Pain, Heat
2. Swelling

9

All the reactions caused by inflammation are chemicals produced by:

Tissue Damage or Death

10

Tissue Damage releases chemical signals that cause specialized tissue cells known as:

Mast Cells

11

To degranulate the granules contain irritant chemicals such as:

Histamine, serotonin, Brady kninis and substance P.

12

Irritant chemicals cause the local blood vessels to:

Dilate and become leaky

13

Other chemicals in granules are attractants called?

Chemotactic agents

14

The chemotactic agent chemicals cause specialized white blood cells called:

Neutrophils and Macrophages.

15

Vasodilation and vascular leakiness result in:

Redness, heat and swelling

16

Pain in the body is caused by:

Substance P

17

In the even of a viral infection, a chemical defense is produced. The chemical is called?

interferon

18

There are at least three types of interferon, What are they?

Alpha, Beta, and Gamma

19

Alpha and Beta cause cells to:

Produce blocking proteins

20

Gamma interferons act to?

Activate macrophages

21

Interferon does _____ to help the infected cell.

nothing

22

What is the group of proteins that is another chemical defense mechanism that is found in the blood?

38-40 complement

23

The ________ proteins can work as part of the innate system, or they can work in concert with the adaptive immune system

complement

24

Several chemicals associated with bacteria can cause an activation of the complement "cascade" one group is chemicals contained in the ?

Cell wall

25

A second activation pathway to the compliment relies on ________ which is produced by the _______

Lectins, Liver

26

When a complement is activated, a number of different reactions occur. The most important reactions are: there are 3

Enhance inflammation, opsonization, and cytolysis

27

There is a specialized cell that patrols the body looking for things that do not belong, they are consider to be ____ Cells

NK (natural Killer)

28

Adaptive Immunity is known as

specific immunity

29

Adaptive immunity gets it name because it ______
to the specific attacker.

adapts

30

The adaptive immune system has two types of responses, what are they?

Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI)
Antibody Mediated Immunity (AMI)

31

The goal of the adaptive immune responses is to destroy or inactivate anything that is?

NOT SELF

32

Adaptive immune responses result from the activities of the?

Lymphocytes

33

Lymphocytes are manufactured in the ________

Bone Marrow

34

There are two main classes of lymphocytes, what are they?

B Cells (B Lymphocytes)
T cells (T Lymphocytes)

35

B Lymphocytes become immunocompetent in the?

Bone Marrow

36

T Lymphocytes become Immunocompetent in the?

Thymus

37

___ lymphocytes are involved in the CMI response and the AMI response.

T

38

___ lymphocytes are involved in only the AMI response

B

39

Adaptive immune responses are not directed against pathogens they are directed against: there are 2

Not Self and Antigens

40

______ tend to be better at inducing the immune response than _______ or Carbohydrates.

Prokins, Lipids

41

Some chemicals are not antigenic by themselves, but become antigenic when combined with _______ in the body. Such chemicals are known as _______

Prokins, Heptens

42

CMI-- to activate the cell mediated system _________ or __________cells must become antigen presenting cells (APC)

macrophages, dendritic

43

Antigen presenting cells stimulate a class of T cells known as _ ______

T helper

44

T helper also known as ____ cells

CDY

45

T helper cells stimulate a special class of T cells which are known as:

Tcytotoxic

46

Tcytotoxic are also known as ____ cells

CD8

47

Tcytotoxic cells are directed against cells of the body that carry:

the antigen

48

Tcytotoxic cells are considered dangerous and are destroyed by the T cell using ________ and _______

perforins and Gramzymes