MIcro Test 3 B

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1

The True Scientific Study of the cause of disease is thought to have begun with?

Robert Koch

2

In Roberts Koch's study of anthrax he developed a set of guidelines regarding disease that are still in use today. The guidelines are known as:

Koch Postulates

3

The 4 ideas that summarize his ideas are:

1.The Organism must be found in ALL cases of the disease
2.The Organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3.When the organism is introduced to healthy animals they get sick (from that disease)
4. Organism must be found in all sick experimental animals

4

This works for many, but not all bacterial infections, but cant work for

Viruses

5

Frequently microbes colonize Eukaryotic organisms. The relationships are generally characterized as: there are 3

Mutualism, Commensalism, parasitism

6

It can be argued that all microbe-induced disease conditions represent:

Parasitism

7

The microbe population that organisms normally carry around is referred to as the:

Normal Flora

8

smoe members of the normal flora are actual residents, others are considered:

Transient

9

Various different parts of host organisms can contain radically different flora, what are the 5 different places you can find the different flora?

Skin, Mouth, Nasopharynx, digestive system, and vaginal tract.

10

Normally harmless organism that can cause disease if given the chance are referred to as?

Opportunist

11

Changes in conditions can cause normal flora to cause disease. Such changes include? there are 4

antibiotics,poor nutrition, exhaustion, and immune suppressant.

12

Most of the normal flora is considered to be in a _____ relationship with humans.

mutalistic

13

The benefits to flora include? 5 of them

prevent infection, produce vitamins, produce amino acids, assist in breakdown of complex compounds, stimulation of immune system.

14

Whats an animal that is grown with 0 bacteria present?

asenic animal

15

Harmful relationships between microbes and humans are generally given the name? there are 3

Infection, intoxication or infestation

16

Infection or infestation can be thought of as _________

Parasitism

17

infection, intoxication and infestation are all lumped into the class called?

Disease

18

As far as we know the only prokaryotes that cause disease are in the domain?

Bacteria

19

While there are several thousand to several million different species of bacteria, it appears that only about_____ cause disease in humans.

300

20

Any colonization of the body by bacteria is an _________, but we are normally only concerened with the infections that cause adverse changes in the body. these are considered to be _____

infection , Disease

21

Many infections result in a characteristic set of signs and symptoms that are collectively called a?

Syndrome

22

if and infection does not cause any apparent illness, it is termed?

Subclinical

23

Organisms capable of causing disease are known as?

Pathogens

24

Infection that leads directly to disease is called?

Primary infection

25

Infection that results from damage caused by the primary infection is termed?

Secondary infection

26

Secondary infections are often caused by?

Opportunist

27

Diseases that can spread form person to person are called:

Communicable

28

Those diseases that are spread easily are considered to be?

Contagious

29

Diseases can be acute or ________, Local or ________

chronic, systemic

30

A local infection that spreads is called a

focal infection

31

most diseases can be divided into several different periods: there are 5

incubation, prodromal, illness, decline, and convalescence

32

Most diseases are transmitted horizontally meaning?

Person to person

33

A few diseases are transmitted vertically meaning?

mother to fetus

34

___________transmission is accomplished in many different ways.

Horizontal

35

Contact transmission has three modes of transfer what are they?

Direct Contact, Indirect contact and droplet transmission.

36

Droplet Transmission can be ____ borne, ____ borne or ___ borne _____ borne

food,water, air, vector

37

Vector Borne is broken down into two modes of transmission what are they?

Mechanical Vector Transmission- Carried on the Surface of vector: Flies, Mosqitos, fleas
Biological vector Transmission- Vector is infected
:flea bites and infected animal then they bite a human

38

Factors that influence spread of disease are: 3 of them

ID50 and incubation period, population charateristics

39

Population Characteristics could include: 5 of them

Age, General health, genetics, population density, level of immunization

40

The focus of many epidemiologic studies is to determine the?

Source of an outbreak of disease

41

An outbreak caused by one source infecting a number of people is a?

Common source epidemic
Examples might be a picnic or one contaminated well

42

An outbreak that is caused by disease spreading from person to person or place to place is a?

Propagated epidemic
Examples are influenza or tuberculosis

43

Notifiable diseases are diseases that must be reported to ___

CDC

44

The term nosicomial refers to?

Hospital acquired infection

45

Many hospitals and clinics have an:

infection control officer

46

An infection control officer is in charge of?

reporting and controlling nosicomial infections.

47

Reservoirs of infection in hospitals include? there are 4

Other patients, Hospital environment, employees, and patients own bacteria

48

The most common organisms found to cause nosicomial infections are: there are 4

enterococcus-urinary tract infection, E. coli, Pseudommus, Staphylococcus auerus

49

Epidemiology is the study of ________

Spread of Disease

50

Epidemiologists are generally more concerned with the rate of ______ rather than with the absolute _______ of infected people

infection
number

51

infection rates are normally expressed in ___/100,000

#

52

Measures of infection include: 4 of them

Morbitidy rate, Mortality rate, incidence, prevalence

53

Morbitidy Rate is:

Cases per hundred thousand in a given time

54

Mortality Rate is:

Deaths per hundred thousand in a given time

55

incidence is the:

# of new cases in a given time frame

56

prevalence is the:

Total 3 of cases both new and old in a given time

57

Diseases constantly present in a population are considered:

Endemic

58

The sudden appearance of a number of cases in a specific population is considered an:

outbreak

59

A very parge increase in the number of cases is an:

Epidemic

60

An epidemic that spreads to several different countries is a:

Pandemic

61

Endemic illnesses can become epidemic. Perhaps the most common example of this is ?

Flu- Influenza

62

The initial case of illness in an out break is known as the

index case

63

Diseases remain in a population because of

reservoirs of infection

64

Examples of Reserviors can be:

Human, non Human or enviromental