MIcro Test 3 B
The True Scientific Study of the cause of disease is thought to have begun with?
In Roberts Koch's study of anthrax he developed a set of guidelines regarding disease that are still in use today. The guidelines are known as:
The 4 ideas that summarize his ideas are:
1.The Organism must be found in ALL cases of the disease
2.The Organism must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3.When the organism is introduced to healthy animals they get sick (from that disease)
4. Organism must be found in all sick experimental animals
This works for many, but not all bacterial infections, but cant work for
Frequently microbes colonize Eukaryotic organisms. The relationships are generally characterized as: there are 3
Mutualism, Commensalism, parasitism
It can be argued that all microbe-induced disease conditions represent:
The microbe population that organisms normally carry around is referred to as the:
smoe members of the normal flora are actual residents, others are considered:
Various different parts of host organisms can contain radically different flora, what are the 5 different places you can find the different flora?
Skin, Mouth, Nasopharynx, digestive system, and vaginal tract.
Normally harmless organism that can cause disease if given the chance are referred to as?
Changes in conditions can cause normal flora to cause disease. Such changes include? there are 4
antibiotics,poor nutrition, exhaustion, and immune suppressant.
Most of the normal flora is considered to be in a _____ relationship with humans.
The benefits to flora include? 5 of them
prevent infection, produce vitamins, produce amino acids, assist in breakdown of complex compounds, stimulation of immune system.
Whats an animal that is grown with 0 bacteria present?
Harmful relationships between microbes and humans are generally given the name? there are 3
Infection, intoxication or infestation
Infection or infestation can be thought of as _________
infection, intoxication and infestation are all lumped into the class called?
As far as we know the only prokaryotes that cause disease are in the domain?
While there are several thousand to several million different species of bacteria, it appears that only about_____ cause disease in humans.
Any colonization of the body by bacteria is an _________, but we are normally only concerened with the infections that cause adverse changes in the body. these are considered to be _____
infection , Disease
Many infections result in a characteristic set of signs and symptoms that are collectively called a?
if and infection does not cause any apparent illness, it is termed?
Organisms capable of causing disease are known as?
Infection that leads directly to disease is called?
Infection that results from damage caused by the primary infection is termed?
Secondary infections are often caused by?
Diseases that can spread form person to person are called:
Those diseases that are spread easily are considered to be?
Diseases can be acute or ________, Local or ________
A local infection that spreads is called a
most diseases can be divided into several different periods: there are 5
incubation, prodromal, illness, decline, and convalescence
Most diseases are transmitted horizontally meaning?
Person to person
A few diseases are transmitted vertically meaning?
mother to fetus
___________transmission is accomplished in many different ways.
Contact transmission has three modes of transfer what are they?
Direct Contact, Indirect contact and droplet transmission.
Droplet Transmission can be ____ borne, ____ borne or ___ borne _____ borne
food,water, air, vector
Vector Borne is broken down into two modes of transmission what are they?
Mechanical Vector Transmission- Carried on the Surface of vector: Flies, Mosqitos, fleas
Biological vector Transmission- Vector is infected
:flea bites and infected animal then they bite a human
Factors that influence spread of disease are: 3 of them
ID50 and incubation period, population charateristics
Population Characteristics could include: 5 of them
Age, General health, genetics, population density, level of immunization
The focus of many epidemiologic studies is to determine the?
Source of an outbreak of disease
An outbreak caused by one source infecting a number of people is a?
Common source epidemic
Examples might be a picnic or one contaminated well
An outbreak that is caused by disease spreading from person to person or place to place is a?
Examples are influenza or tuberculosis
Notifiable diseases are diseases that must be reported to ___
The term nosicomial refers to?
Hospital acquired infection
Many hospitals and clinics have an:
infection control officer
An infection control officer is in charge of?
reporting and controlling nosicomial infections.
Reservoirs of infection in hospitals include? there are 4
Other patients, Hospital environment, employees, and patients own bacteria
The most common organisms found to cause nosicomial infections are: there are 4
enterococcus-urinary tract infection, E. coli, Pseudommus, Staphylococcus auerus
Epidemiology is the study of ________
Spread of Disease
Epidemiologists are generally more concerned with the rate of ______ rather than with the absolute _______ of infected people
infection rates are normally expressed in ___/100,000
Measures of infection include: 4 of them
Morbitidy rate, Mortality rate, incidence, prevalence
Morbitidy Rate is:
Cases per hundred thousand in a given time
Mortality Rate is:
Deaths per hundred thousand in a given time
incidence is the:
# of new cases in a given time frame
prevalence is the:
Total 3 of cases both new and old in a given time
Diseases constantly present in a population are considered:
The sudden appearance of a number of cases in a specific population is considered an:
A very parge increase in the number of cases is an:
An epidemic that spreads to several different countries is a:
Endemic illnesses can become epidemic. Perhaps the most common example of this is ?
The initial case of illness in an out break is known as the
Diseases remain in a population because of
reservoirs of infection
Examples of Reserviors can be:
Human, non Human or enviromental