Central Nervous System
Where does the CNS Develop?
-The embryonic neural tube
What are the 4 major parts of the brain?
Describe Cerebral Hempisphere(cerebrum):
-paired(left and right) superior parts of the brain
-largest portion of the brain
-the surface is made of ridges(gyri) and grooves(sulci)
What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum?
Describe the Frontal lobe:
-voluntary motor functions
-aggression, smell, mood
Describe the Temporal lobe:
-Olfactory & auditory input
-memory, abstract thought, and judgement
Describe the Parietal lobe:
-reception and evaluation(integration) of sensory info excluding smell, hearing, and vision.
Describe the Occipital lobe:
-vision and integration of visual input
What are the 3 layers of the cerebrum?
Describe the Cerebral Cortex(Gray Matter):
-involved in higher brain functions:speech, memory, logic, emotion, interpretation of sensory input, consciousness
Describe the Cerebral Medulla(White Matter):
-myelinated nerve tracts inside the gray matter that connect areas of the CNS
Describe the Basal Nuclei:
-important in controlling and modifying motor functions
What is Parkinson's Disease?
What is Huntington's Disease?
-rapid, jerky movement
What are the 3 main parts of the Diencephalon?
Describe the Thalmus:
-surrounds the 3rd ventricle
Describe the Hypothalmus:
-under the thalmus
-important in Autonomic nervous system
-important in limbic system
What are the functions of the autonomic nervous system(ANS)?
-regulates body temp, thirst, huger, satiety, swallowing, and emotions.
what are the functions of the limbic system?
-plays a role in survival of functions of memory, reproduction, sensory input and emotions; low level of integration.
What gland is attached to the hypothalmus?
Describe the Epithalmus:
-forms the roof of the 3rd ventricle
-houses the pineal body
-includes choroid plexus
What is the function of the pineal body?
What can result from damage of the brain stem?
-can result in death where as higher integration areas like the cerebellum can withstand major damage.
What are the 3 main parts of the brain stem?
What is the structure of the midbrain?
-composed mostly of tracts and nerve fibers
What is the function of the pons?
-control of breathing
What is the function of the Medulla oblongota?
-autonomic control center for hearth rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting.
What are the functions of the cerebelllum?
-provides involuntary coordination of body movements
-plays a role in posture & equilibrium
What are the 5 organs involved in protecting the CNS?
-scalp & skin
-skull & vertebral column
What are the 3 parts of the meninges?
Describe dura mater:
-seperated from the periosteum by the epidural space(injection site of anesthesia during childbirth)
-subdural space between dura and arachnoid mater can fill with blood resulting from trauma and cause a subdural hematoma
describe arachoid mater:
-subarachnoid space between arachnoid mater and pia mater is filled with CSF
describe pia mater:
-inner most delicate membrane attached directly to the spinal cord
What are the 2 layers of the dura mater?
What is the function of the cerebralspinal fluid?
-forms protective cushion around CNS
What will result from interrupted blood flow to the brain?
-can cause unconsciousness or irreversible brain damage if maintained for an extended period or time.
What happens to the cells of chemotherapy patients?
What are some common brain injuries?
-Meningitis(bacteria/viral infection in brain/spine)
Name the 2 most common degenerative injuries in the brain?
What is cerebrovascular accidents(CVA or strokes)?
-death of brain tissue because of blood depravation
What causes strokes?
What is Alzheimer's Disease?
-progressive degenerative brain disease
-symptoms: memory loss, irritability, confusion, and ultimately hallucinations & death
What are the 2 roots that branch from the vertebrae to the spinal nerves?
Describe the Dorsal root:
Describe the Ventral root:
What is flaccid paralysis?
-damage to ventral motor roots or anterior horn
-no muscle tone maintained
what is spastic paralysis?
-jerky, uncontrolled movements
-damage to cerebral cortex
What is Parplegic?
-both lower limbs affected
-damage to T1-L2
What is quadraplegic?
-all 4 limbs affected
-damage to spinal cord in cervical area
What is diaphragm?
-transection of spinal cord at mid-cervical or highter