Central Nervous System

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Hilary661
570 views
Created for Bakersfield College A&P
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Where does the CNS Develop?

-The embryonic neural tube

2

What are the 4 major parts of the brain?

-Cerebral Hemispheres(Cerebrum)
-Diencephalon
-Brain Stem
-Cerebellum

3

~Cerebral Hemisphere~

...

4

Describe Cerebral Hempisphere(cerebrum):

-paired(left and right) superior parts of the brain
-largest portion of the brain
-the surface is made of ridges(gyri) and grooves(sulci)

5

What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum?

-Frontal lobe
-Temporal lobe
-Parietal lobe
-Occipital lobe

6

Describe the Frontal lobe:

-voluntary motor functions
-aggression, smell, mood

7

Describe the Temporal lobe:

-Olfactory & auditory input
-memory, abstract thought, and judgement

8

Describe the Parietal lobe:

-reception and evaluation(integration) of sensory info excluding smell, hearing, and vision.

9

Describe the Occipital lobe:

-vision and integration of visual input

10

What are the 3 layers of the cerebrum?

-Cerebral Cortex
-Cerebral Medulla
-Basal Nuclei

11

Describe the Cerebral Cortex(Gray Matter):

-outer layer
-involved in higher brain functions:speech, memory, logic, emotion, interpretation of sensory input, consciousness

12

Describe the Cerebral Medulla(White Matter):

-myelinated nerve tracts inside the gray matter that connect areas of the CNS

13

Describe the Basal Nuclei:

-important in controlling and modifying motor functions

14

What is Parkinson's Disease?

-slow tremors
-environmental

15

What is Huntington's Disease?

-rapid, jerky movement
-genetic

16

~Diencephalon~

...

17

What are the 3 main parts of the Diencephalon?

-Thalmus
-hypothalmus
-epithalmus

18

Describe the Thalmus:

-surrounds the 3rd ventricle

19

Describe the Hypothalmus:

-under the thalmus
-important in Autonomic nervous system
-important in limbic system

20

What are the functions of the autonomic nervous system(ANS)?

-regulates body temp, thirst, huger, satiety, swallowing, and emotions.

21

what are the functions of the limbic system?

-plays a role in survival of functions of memory, reproduction, sensory input and emotions; low level of integration.

22

What gland is attached to the hypothalmus?

-Pituitary Gland

23

Describe the Epithalmus:

-forms the roof of the 3rd ventricle
-houses the pineal body
-includes choroid plexus

24

What is the function of the pineal body?

-melatonin production

25

~Brain Stem~

...

26

What can result from damage of the brain stem?

-can result in death where as higher integration areas like the cerebellum can withstand major damage.

27

What are the 3 main parts of the brain stem?

-midbrain
-pons
-medulla oblongata

28

What is the structure of the midbrain?

-composed mostly of tracts and nerve fibers

29

What is the function of the pons?

-control of breathing

30

What is the function of the Medulla oblongota?

-autonomic control center for hearth rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting.

31

~Cerebullum~

...

32

What are the functions of the cerebelllum?

-provides involuntary coordination of body movements
-plays a role in posture & equilibrium

33

What are the 5 organs involved in protecting the CNS?

-scalp & skin
-skull & vertebral column
-meninges

34

What are the 3 parts of the meninges?

-dura mater
-arachnoid mater
-pia mater

35

Describe dura mater:

-seperated from the periosteum by the epidural space(injection site of anesthesia during childbirth)
-subdural space between dura and arachnoid mater can fill with blood resulting from trauma and cause a subdural hematoma

36

describe arachoid mater:

-subarachnoid space between arachnoid mater and pia mater is filled with CSF

37

describe pia mater:

-inner most delicate membrane attached directly to the spinal cord

38

What are the 2 layers of the dura mater?

-periosteum
-meningeal layer

39

What is the function of the cerebralspinal fluid?

-forms protective cushion around CNS

40

What will result from interrupted blood flow to the brain?

-can cause unconsciousness or irreversible brain damage if maintained for an extended period or time.

41

What happens to the cells of chemotherapy patients?

-Cell shrinkage

42

What are some common brain injuries?

-Concussion
-contusion(bruise)
-hydrocephalus
-Meningitis(bacteria/viral infection in brain/spine)

43

Name the 2 most common degenerative injuries in the brain?

-CVA's
-ALzheimer's Disease

44

What is cerebrovascular accidents(CVA or strokes)?

-death of brain tissue because of blood depravation

45

What causes strokes?

-hemorrhagic
-ischemic

46

What is Alzheimer's Disease?

-progressive degenerative brain disease
-symptoms: memory loss, irritability, confusion, and ultimately hallucinations & death

47

What are the 2 roots that branch from the vertebrae to the spinal nerves?

-dorsal root
-ventral root

48

Describe the Dorsal root:

-sensory neurons

49

Describe the Ventral root:

-motor neurons

50

What is flaccid paralysis?

-damage to ventral motor roots or anterior horn
-no muscle tone maintained

51

what is spastic paralysis?

-jerky, uncontrolled movements
-damage to cerebral cortex

52

What is Parplegic?

-both lower limbs affected
-damage to T1-L2

53

What is quadraplegic?

-all 4 limbs affected
-damage to spinal cord in cervical area

54

What is diaphragm?

-transection of spinal cord at mid-cervical or highter