Anatomy Lab Practical #3
external nares (nostrils)
filters, warms, moistens incoming air & is passageway to pharynx
produce mucus; act as resonators for sound; lighten skull
bony prominences that provide space for nasal meatuses, through which incoming air is warmed & humidified
chamber shared by the digestive & respiratory system, passageway for air between mose & larynx and for food to travel from mouth to esophagus
inferior to hyoid bone and superior to trachea. cartilaginous structure surrounding glottis and vocal cords; passage way for air between pharynx and the rest of the respiratory tract, produces sound & protects trachea from foreign objects
largest laryngeal cartilage (adam's apple)
laryngeal cartilage inferior to thyroid cartilage
passageway from pharynx to the larynx
composed of elastic cartilage; folds back over the glottis during swallowing to prevent entry of food or liquids into the respiratory tract
passageway for air to and from thoracic cavity; traps and expels foreign matter
muscle separating thoracic cavity from abdominopelvic cavity; enlarges thoracic cavity to allow for inspiration, returns to original position for expiration
passageways for air to and from lungs; filters air
passageways for air to and from alveoli
site of gas exchange; functional unit of lungs
major respiratory organs
protect, compartmentalize & lubricate the outer surface of the lungs, enclose pleural cavities
the region between 2 pleural cavities; also contains thymus, esophagus, & trachea
process by which oxygen & carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs & tissues
breathing; the process by which air enters the lungs & is expelled from the lungs
air enters the lungs
air leaves the lungs
pertaining to the lungs
period of no respiratory activity
rapid & deep breathing leading to an excessive in take of oxygen & elimination of carbon dioxide which can lead to respiratory alkalosis
slow and shallow breathing which can lead to respiratory acidosis
technique for removing an object blocking the airway; forcefully elevates the diaphragm by compression of the abdomen
false vocal cords- protects vocal cords
vocal folds =
conducts air to the lungs (has cartilaginous rings)
the trachea divides into
right & left primary bronchi
right primary bronchi is ____ compared to the left primary bronchi
larger in diameter & straighter
right lung has
left lung has
2 lobes (cardiac notch)
primary bronchi divide into
secondary bronchi divide into
bronchioles divide into
alveolar ducts branch into
separated by mediastinum
serous membrane lining the pleural cavity
covers the inner surface of the thoracic wall and extends over the diaphragm & mediastinum
covers the outer surfaces of the lungs
forms a moist, slippery coating that provides lubrication between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura
the volume of air that is moved into and out of the lungs with each breath during normal quiet breathing
inspiratory reserve volume
maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal quiet inspiration
expiratory reserve volume
maximum amount of air that can be expelled above the tidal volume
total functional capacity of the lungs
air remaining in the lungs that cannot be expelled
the process by which air enters the lungs and is expelled from the lungs
a process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and tissues
the main muscles which are active during normal breathing are
diaphragm & external intercostal muscles
large muscular sheet that separates the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities; primary muscle of respiration; dome-shaped;
main functions of the diaphragm
muscle of inspiration, muscle of abdominal straining, weight-lifting muscle, & thoracoabdominal pump
the most common lethal inherited disease that affects caucasians of northern european descent
leading cause of death from infectious disease in the world
Respiratory distress syndrome
a condition affecting mainly premature infants due to lack of surfactant
inflammation of the bronchial lining
causes permanent and irreversible loss of use of the alveoli & bronchioles
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
progressive and usually irreversible condition characterized by diminished breathing capacity
functional units of the kidneys
blood enters the glomerulus through this
urination; emptying of the urinary bladder
pertaining to the kidney
each contain a glomerulus, bowman's capsule, proximal tubule, loop of henle, and distal tubule.
located nearest to the center of the body
farthest from the point of the origin of a structure
prefix meaning "bladder"
any substance that stimulates urination
type of treatment used for kidney failure in which dialysis devices act as "artificial" kidneys
egg cells - female gametes
male gamete + female gamete = a fertilized egg
saclike structures that contain testes
the male gonads where gametes are produced & hormones are secreted
copulatory organ of the male
the long proximal portion of the penis
distal portion of the penis
large fold of skin that covers the glans penis (sometimes removed in early infancy by a procedure - circumcision)
columns of specialized erectile tissue within the penile shaft
single midline column within the penile shaft
response to sexual excitation that occurs when the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum become engorged with blood causing the penis to enlarge & become rigid
coiled duct that connects the testis to the duct deferens; site of sperm maturation ; stores sperm
ductus (vas) deferens
passageway that carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
expanded portion of ductus deferens
contains sperm and secretions from the 3 male accessory glands: the prostate gland, the bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands, and the seminal vessicles
secretes an alkaline prostatic fluid
bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
secretes mucus that lubricates the penile urethra
secretes seminal fluid which is an alkaline, fructose rich fluid
the most common cancer in the US among males in the age range from 15-35 years old.
filled with a nucleus
cap on the head of sperm, contains acid hydrolases
middle piece of sperm
contains centrioles & mitochondria
tail of sperm
normal range is from 20-100 million per milliliter
female external genitalia
fatty tissue which covers the pubic symphysis (covered with hair)
two vertical folds of fat filled skin which are homologous to the male scrotum (contains sebaceous and sweat glands & are covered by hair)
medial to the labia majora
a small rounded tissue projection anterior to the labia minora which contains erectile (homologue to the penis)
hood of skin covering the clitoris
exposed portion of the clitoris
diamond shaped area at the base of the pelvic cavity
membranous tissue covering the vaginal opening before first intercourse
cylindrical cavity extending from the vulva to the uterus
small, pear shaped organ in which implantation and the growth and development of the fetus occurs
inferior portion of the uterus
broad, superior portion of the uterus
made up of 3 layers: myometrium, endometrium, and perimetrium
uterine (fallopian) tubes
two tubes approximately 5 inches in length containing ciliated cells which help propel the oocyte through the tube
expanded, distal end of the uterine tubes which ends in fimbriae
almond shaped organs on either side of the uterus (produce, nourish, and release ova as was as produce progesterone & estrogen)
modified sweat glands that produce and secrete milk in the female
small, conical projection
darkened area around the nipple
small bumps on the surface of the areola
a common cancer in women and is one of the leading causes of death by cancer among females
x-rays used to detect early breast cancer
a single cell resulting from the fertilization of an ovum by a sperm
fertilization to the end of the 8th week
beginning of the 9th week to birth
about day 3
fluid filled hollow sphere
when the zygote divides repeatedly
9 months of prenatal development (divided into 3 trimesters)
period of embryological development & early fetal development
development of organs and organ systems
characterized by rapid fetal growth
forcible expulsion of the fetus
3 stages of labor
dilation, expulsion, and placental
multiple births occur in a pattern of multiples of
when more than 1 ovum is released from the ovary at the same time and are fertilized
result from the same fertilized ovum
which pair of vocal cords are true vocal cords?
inferior vocal folds (lower vocal folds)
forms the adam's apple
a lid for the larynx
flexible elastic cartilage of epiglottis
shaped like a signet ring
vocal cord attachment
What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings?
it reinforces the trachea walls to help maintain an open passageway regardless of the pressure changes that occur during breathing.
What is the significance of the fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly?
it allows the esophagus to expand anteriorly when a large food bolus is swallowed.
what are 2 functions of the nasal cavity mucosa?
warms, moistens, and filters the air that passes through the nasal cavity
which primary bronchi is longer?
left main bronchi
which primary bronchi is larger in diameter?
right main bronchi
which primary bronchi is more horizontal?
left main bronchi
which primary bronchi more commonly traps a foreign objects that has entered the respiratory passageways?
right main bronchi
connects the larynx to the primary bronchi
site of tonsils
food passageway posterior to the trachea
covers the glottis during swallowing of food
contains the vocal cords
nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration
pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax
site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood
connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx
opening between the vocal cords
increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity
separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity
the gas exchange between the blood & the air-filled chambers of the lungs (oxygen loading/ carbon dioxide unloading)
exchange of gases between systemic blood & tissue cells (oxygen unloading & carbon dioxide loading)
metabolic processes in which ATP is produced through the use of oxygen & the release of carbon dioxide as a waste product
How do the lungs inflate?
part by part
What happens when pressure is released in the lungs?
it rapidly deflates
What type of tissue ensures the phenomenon of the lungs
elastic connective tissue
What structural characteristics of the alveoli make them an ideal site for the diffusion of gases?
being composed of a single thin layer overlying a large surface area of wispy basal lamina
why does oxygen move from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood?
because the partial pressure of oxygen is greater in the alveoli therefore it moves according to the laws of diffusion into the pulmonary blood
what is the function of the fat cushion that surrounds the kidneys in life?
perineal fat capsules anchor the kidneys to the dorsal body in a retroperitoneal position & cushion it against blows
why is incontinence a normal phenomenon in the child 1.5 to 2 years old?
they have not yet gained control over their external sphincter
what events may lead to incontinence in an adult?
as a result of a spinal cord injury, emotional problems, bladder irritability, or some other pathology of the urinary tract
smooth membrane, tightly adherent to the kidney surface
portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts
portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures
superficial region of the kidney tissue
basinlike area of the kidney, continuous with the ureter
a cup-shaped extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid
area of cortical tissue running between the medullary pyramids
sire of filtrate formation
primary site of tubular reabsorption
proximal convoluted tubule
secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption
distal convoluted tubule
structure that coveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis
blood supply that directly relieves substances from the tubular cells
its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane
explain why the glomerulus is such a high-pressure capillary bed
the bed is fed & drained by arterioles (high resistance vessels) and the afferent feeder arteriole is larger in diameter than the efferent arteriole draining the bed
how does the high pressure condition in the glomerulus aid in its function of filtrate formation?
the pressure drives out fluid and blood components into the glomerular capsule which forms the filtrate, thus, the higher the capillary bed, the more filtrate will be formed
2 principal functions of the testis
to produce sperm & produce testosterone
a common part of any physical examination of the male is the palpation of the prostate. how is it accomplished?
a physician will gently insert a finger into the anus and palpate the anterior wall of the rectum
how might the enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male?
as it enlarges, layers surrounding the tissue stop it from expanding, causing the gland to press against the urethra. the constriction of the urethra may lead to nonpassage of urine or sperm
why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity?
because the scrotum provides a slightly cooler environment (94 degrees F) which is a requirement for producing viable sperm
copulatory organ/ penetrating device
ductus (vas) deferens
muscular passageway conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord
transports both sperm and urine
sperm maturation site
location of the testis in adult males
loose fold of skin encircling the glans penis
portion of the urethra between the prostate & the penis
empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra
empties a secretion into the membranous urethra
of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline?
it helps buffer the sperm against the acidic environment of the female reproductive tract, increasing the sperms ability to fertilize
trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra
seminferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, & ductus deferens
site of fetal development
uterine (fallopian) tube
egg typically fertilized here
becomes erect during sexual excitement
uterine (fallopian) tubes
duct extending superolaterally from the uterus
partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane
produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone
fingerlike ends of the uterine tube
do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? why or why not?
yes, because the ovaries lie adjacent to the uterine tubes but they are not connected, thus allowing the sperm into the pelvic cavity
what is an ectopic pregnancy & how can it happen?
is when an embryo implants in a site other than the uterus. this can occur when the fallopian tubs are blocked (prevents passage) or when an egg is lost in the peritoneal cavity & fertilization occurs there.
ejection of an immature egg (oocyte) from the ovary
name the 3 layers of the uterine wall from the inside out
endometrium, myometrium, & perimetrium
which layer of the uterine wall is sloughed off during menses?
which layer of the uterine wall contracts during childbirth?
by the time a female child is born, all viable oogonia have been converted to
how does the total germ cell potential of the female compare to the male?
it is much smaller, because the female is given a set number of germ cells that will last her a lifetime whereas the males are constantly producing sperm
a sac like structure containing follicle cells in one or more layers that encloses the gamete
Trace the pathway of a sperm cell through a female reproductive system
vagina, cervix, uterus, uterine tube, peritoneal cavity
What day during the menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikely?
anytime, but the 3-day interval around ovulation