Anatomy Lab Practical #3

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1

nose

external nares (nostrils)

2

nasal cavity

filters, warms, moistens incoming air & is passageway to pharynx

3

paranasal sinuses

produce mucus; act as resonators for sound; lighten skull

4

nasal conchae

bony prominences that provide space for nasal meatuses, through which incoming air is warmed & humidified

5

pharynx

chamber shared by the digestive & respiratory system, passageway for air between mose & larynx and for food to travel from mouth to esophagus

6

larynx

inferior to hyoid bone and superior to trachea. cartilaginous structure surrounding glottis and vocal cords; passage way for air between pharynx and the rest of the respiratory tract, produces sound & protects trachea from foreign objects

7

thyroid cartilage

largest laryngeal cartilage (adam's apple)

8

cricoid cartilage

laryngeal cartilage inferior to thyroid cartilage

9

glottis

passageway from pharynx to the larynx

10

epiglottis

composed of elastic cartilage; folds back over the glottis during swallowing to prevent entry of food or liquids into the respiratory tract

11

trachea

passageway for air to and from thoracic cavity; traps and expels foreign matter

12

diaphragm

muscle separating thoracic cavity from abdominopelvic cavity; enlarges thoracic cavity to allow for inspiration, returns to original position for expiration

13

bronchi

passageways for air to and from lungs; filters air

14

bronchioles

passageways for air to and from alveoli

15

alveoli

site of gas exchange; functional unit of lungs

16

lungs

major respiratory organs

17

pleurae

protect, compartmentalize & lubricate the outer surface of the lungs, enclose pleural cavities

18

mediastinum

the region between 2 pleural cavities; also contains thymus, esophagus, & trachea

19

respiration

process by which oxygen & carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs & tissues

20

ventilation

breathing; the process by which air enters the lungs & is expelled from the lungs

21

inhalation

air enters the lungs

22

exhalation

air leaves the lungs

23

pulmonary

pertaining to the lungs

24

dyspnea

difficult breathing

25

apnea

period of no respiratory activity

26

hyperventilation

rapid & deep breathing leading to an excessive in take of oxygen & elimination of carbon dioxide which can lead to respiratory alkalosis

27

hypoventilation

slow and shallow breathing which can lead to respiratory acidosis

28

heimlich maneuver

technique for removing an object blocking the airway; forcefully elevates the diaphragm by compression of the abdomen

29

vestibular folds

false vocal cords- protects vocal cords

30

vocal folds =

vocal cords

31

trachea

conducts air to the lungs (has cartilaginous rings)

32

the trachea divides into

right & left primary bronchi

33

right primary bronchi is ____ compared to the left primary bronchi

larger in diameter & straighter

34

right lung has

3 lobes

35

left lung has

2 lobes (cardiac notch)

36

primary bronchi divide into

secondary bronchi

37

secondary bronchi divide into

bronchioles

38

bronchioles divide into

alveolar ducts

39

alveolar ducts branch into

alveoli

40

pleural cavities

separated by mediastinum

41

pleura

serous membrane lining the pleural cavity

42

parietal pleura

covers the inner surface of the thoracic wall and extends over the diaphragm & mediastinum

43

visceral pleura

covers the outer surfaces of the lungs

44

pleural fluid

forms a moist, slippery coating that provides lubrication between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura

45

tidal volume

the volume of air that is moved into and out of the lungs with each breath during normal quiet breathing

46

inspiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal quiet inspiration

47

expiratory reserve volume

maximum amount of air that can be expelled above the tidal volume

48

vital capacity

total functional capacity of the lungs

49

residual volume

air remaining in the lungs that cannot be expelled

50

breathing (ventilation)

the process by which air enters the lungs and is expelled from the lungs

51

respiration

a process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and tissues

52

the main muscles which are active during normal breathing are

diaphragm & external intercostal muscles

53

diaphragm

large muscular sheet that separates the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities; primary muscle of respiration; dome-shaped;

54

main functions of the diaphragm

muscle of inspiration, muscle of abdominal straining, weight-lifting muscle, & thoracoabdominal pump

55

eupnea

quiet breathing

56

diaphragmatic breathing

deep breathing

57

costal breathing

shallow breathing

58

hyperpnea

forced breathing

59

Cystic fibrosis

the most common lethal inherited disease that affects caucasians of northern european descent

60

Tuberculosis

leading cause of death from infectious disease in the world

61

Respiratory distress syndrome

a condition affecting mainly premature infants due to lack of surfactant

62

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchial lining

63

emphysema

causes permanent and irreversible loss of use of the alveoli & bronchioles

64

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

progressive and usually irreversible condition characterized by diminished breathing capacity

65

kidneys

produce urine

66

nephrons

functional units of the kidneys

67

afferent arteriole

blood enters the glomerulus through this

68

micturition

urination; emptying of the urinary bladder

69

renal

pertaining to the kidney

70

nephron

each contain a glomerulus, bowman's capsule, proximal tubule, loop of henle, and distal tubule.

71

proximal

located nearest to the center of the body

72

distal

farthest from the point of the origin of a structure

73

cysto-

prefix meaning "bladder"

74

diuretic

any substance that stimulates urination

75

renal calculi

kidney stones

76

dialysis

type of treatment used for kidney failure in which dialysis devices act as "artificial" kidneys

77

gametes

sex cells

78

somatic cells

body cells

79

sperm cells

male gametes

80

ova

egg cells - female gametes

81

zygote

male gamete + female gamete = a fertilized egg

82

scrotum

saclike structures that contain testes

83

testis

the male gonads where gametes are produced & hormones are secreted

84

penis

copulatory organ of the male

85

penile shaft

the long proximal portion of the penis

86

glans penis

distal portion of the penis

87

prepuce (foreskin)

large fold of skin that covers the glans penis (sometimes removed in early infancy by a procedure - circumcision)

88

corpora cavernosa

columns of specialized erectile tissue within the penile shaft

89

corpus spongiosum

single midline column within the penile shaft

90

erection

response to sexual excitation that occurs when the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum become engorged with blood causing the penis to enlarge & become rigid

91

epididymis

coiled duct that connects the testis to the duct deferens; site of sperm maturation ; stores sperm

92

ductus (vas) deferens

passageway that carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

93

ampulla

expanded portion of ductus deferens

94

seminal fluid

contains sperm and secretions from the 3 male accessory glands: the prostate gland, the bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands, and the seminal vessicles

95

prostate gland

secretes an alkaline prostatic fluid

96

bulbourethral (cowper's) glands

secretes mucus that lubricates the penile urethra

97

seminal vesicles

secretes seminal fluid which is an alkaline, fructose rich fluid

98

testicular cancer

the most common cancer in the US among males in the age range from 15-35 years old.

99

sperm head

filled with a nucleus

100

acrosome

cap on the head of sperm, contains acid hydrolases

101

middle piece of sperm

contains centrioles & mitochondria

102

tail of sperm

flagellum

103

sperm count

normal range is from 20-100 million per milliliter

104

vulva (pudendum)

female external genitalia

105

mons pubis

fatty tissue which covers the pubic symphysis (covered with hair)

106

labia majora

two vertical folds of fat filled skin which are homologous to the male scrotum (contains sebaceous and sweat glands & are covered by hair)

107

labia minora

medial to the labia majora

108

clitoris

a small rounded tissue projection anterior to the labia minora which contains erectile (homologue to the penis)

109

prepuce

hood of skin covering the clitoris

110

glans clitoris

exposed portion of the clitoris

111

perineum

diamond shaped area at the base of the pelvic cavity

112

hymen

membranous tissue covering the vaginal opening before first intercourse

113

vagina

cylindrical cavity extending from the vulva to the uterus

114

uterus

small, pear shaped organ in which implantation and the growth and development of the fetus occurs

115

cervix

inferior portion of the uterus

116

fundus

broad, superior portion of the uterus

117

uterine wall

made up of 3 layers: myometrium, endometrium, and perimetrium

118

uterine (fallopian) tubes

two tubes approximately 5 inches in length containing ciliated cells which help propel the oocyte through the tube

119

infundibulum

expanded, distal end of the uterine tubes which ends in fimbriae

120

ovary

almond shaped organs on either side of the uterus (produce, nourish, and release ova as was as produce progesterone & estrogen)

121

womb =

uterus

122

mammary glands

modified sweat glands that produce and secrete milk in the female

123

nipple

small, conical projection

124

areola

darkened area around the nipple

125

sebaceous glands

small bumps on the surface of the areola

126

breast cancer

a common cancer in women and is one of the leading causes of death by cancer among females

127

mammograms

x-rays used to detect early breast cancer

128

zygote

a single cell resulting from the fertilization of an ovum by a sperm

129

embryonic period

fertilization to the end of the 8th week

130

fetal period

beginning of the 9th week to birth

131

morula

about day 3

132

blastomere

cells cleave

133

blastocyst

fluid filled hollow sphere

134

cleavage

when the zygote divides repeatedly

135

gestation

9 months of prenatal development (divided into 3 trimesters)

136

first trimester

period of embryological development & early fetal development

137

second trimester

development of organs and organ systems

138

third trimester

characterized by rapid fetal growth

139

parturition

forcible expulsion of the fetus

140

3 stages of labor

dilation, expulsion, and placental

141

multiple births occur in a pattern of multiples of

89

142

fraternal twins

when more than 1 ovum is released from the ovary at the same time and are fertilized

143

identical twins

result from the same fertilized ovum

144

which pair of vocal cords are true vocal cords?

inferior vocal folds (lower vocal folds)

145

forms the adam's apple

thyroid cartilage

146

a lid for the larynx

flexible elastic cartilage of epiglottis

147

shaped like a signet ring

cricoid cartilage

148

vocal cord attachment

arytenoid cartilage

149

What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings?

it reinforces the trachea walls to help maintain an open passageway regardless of the pressure changes that occur during breathing.

150

What is the significance of the fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly?

it allows the esophagus to expand anteriorly when a large food bolus is swallowed.

151

what are 2 functions of the nasal cavity mucosa?

warms, moistens, and filters the air that passes through the nasal cavity

152

which primary bronchi is longer?

left main bronchi

153

which primary bronchi is larger in diameter?

right main bronchi

154

which primary bronchi is more horizontal?

left main bronchi

155

which primary bronchi more commonly traps a foreign objects that has entered the respiratory passageways?

right main bronchi

156

trachea

connects the larynx to the primary bronchi

157

pharynx

site of tonsils

158

esophagus

food passageway posterior to the trachea

159

epiglottis

covers the glottis during swallowing of food

160

larynx

contains the vocal cords

161

phrenic nerve

nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration

162

parietal pleura

pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax

163

alveolus

site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood

164

pharyngotympanic tube

connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

165

glottis

opening between the vocal cords

166

conchae

increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity

167

palate

separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity

168

external respiration

the gas exchange between the blood & the air-filled chambers of the lungs (oxygen loading/ carbon dioxide unloading)

169

internal respiration

exchange of gases between systemic blood & tissue cells (oxygen unloading & carbon dioxide loading)

170

cellular respiration

metabolic processes in which ATP is produced through the use of oxygen & the release of carbon dioxide as a waste product

171

How do the lungs inflate?

part by part

172

What happens when pressure is released in the lungs?

it rapidly deflates

173

What type of tissue ensures the phenomenon of the lungs

elastic connective tissue

174

What structural characteristics of the alveoli make them an ideal site for the diffusion of gases?

being composed of a single thin layer overlying a large surface area of wispy basal lamina

175

why does oxygen move from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood?

because the partial pressure of oxygen is greater in the alveoli therefore it moves according to the laws of diffusion into the pulmonary blood

176

what is the function of the fat cushion that surrounds the kidneys in life?

perineal fat capsules anchor the kidneys to the dorsal body in a retroperitoneal position & cushion it against blows

177

why is incontinence a normal phenomenon in the child 1.5 to 2 years old?

they have not yet gained control over their external sphincter

178

what events may lead to incontinence in an adult?

as a result of a spinal cord injury, emotional problems, bladder irritability, or some other pathology of the urinary tract

179

smooth membrane, tightly adherent to the kidney surface

fibrous capsule

180

portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts

medulla

181

portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures

cortex

182

superficial region of the kidney tissue

cortex

183

basinlike area of the kidney, continuous with the ureter

renal pelvis

184

a cup-shaped extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid

minor calyx

185

area of cortical tissue running between the medullary pyramids

renal column

186

sire of filtrate formation

glomerulus

187

primary site of tubular reabsorption

proximal convoluted tubule

188

secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption

distal convoluted tubule

189

structure that coveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis

collecting ducts

190

blood supply that directly relieves substances from the tubular cells

peritubular capillaries

191

its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane

glomerular capsule

192

explain why the glomerulus is such a high-pressure capillary bed

the bed is fed & drained by arterioles (high resistance vessels) and the afferent feeder arteriole is larger in diameter than the efferent arteriole draining the bed

193

how does the high pressure condition in the glomerulus aid in its function of filtrate formation?

the pressure drives out fluid and blood components into the glomerular capsule which forms the filtrate, thus, the higher the capillary bed, the more filtrate will be formed

194

2 principal functions of the testis

to produce sperm & produce testosterone

195

a common part of any physical examination of the male is the palpation of the prostate. how is it accomplished?

a physician will gently insert a finger into the anus and palpate the anterior wall of the rectum

196

how might the enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male?

as it enlarges, layers surrounding the tissue stop it from expanding, causing the gland to press against the urethra. the constriction of the urethra may lead to nonpassage of urine or sperm

197

why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity?

because the scrotum provides a slightly cooler environment (94 degrees F) which is a requirement for producing viable sperm

198

penis

copulatory organ/ penetrating device

199

ductus (vas) deferens

muscular passageway conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord

200

spongy urethra

transports both sperm and urine

201

epididymis

sperm maturation site

202

scrotum

location of the testis in adult males

203

prepuce

loose fold of skin encircling the glans penis

204

membranous urethra

portion of the urethra between the prostate & the penis

205

prostate

empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra

206

bulbourethral glands

empties a secretion into the membranous urethra

207

of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline?

it helps buffer the sperm against the acidic environment of the female reproductive tract, increasing the sperms ability to fertilize

208

trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra

seminferous tubule, rete testis, epididymis, & ductus deferens

209

uterus

site of fetal development

210

vagina

copulatory canal

211

uterine (fallopian) tube

egg typically fertilized here

212

clitoris

becomes erect during sexual excitement

213

uterine (fallopian) tubes

duct extending superolaterally from the uterus

214

hymen

partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane

215

ovaries

produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone

216

fimbriae

fingerlike ends of the uterine tube

217

do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? why or why not?

yes, because the ovaries lie adjacent to the uterine tubes but they are not connected, thus allowing the sperm into the pelvic cavity

218

what is an ectopic pregnancy & how can it happen?

is when an embryo implants in a site other than the uterus. this can occur when the fallopian tubs are blocked (prevents passage) or when an egg is lost in the peritoneal cavity & fertilization occurs there.

219

ovulation

ejection of an immature egg (oocyte) from the ovary

220

name the 3 layers of the uterine wall from the inside out

endometrium, myometrium, & perimetrium

221

which layer of the uterine wall is sloughed off during menses?

endometrium

222

which layer of the uterine wall contracts during childbirth?

myometrium

223

by the time a female child is born, all viable oogonia have been converted to

primary oocytes

224

how does the total germ cell potential of the female compare to the male?

it is much smaller, because the female is given a set number of germ cells that will last her a lifetime whereas the males are constantly producing sperm

225

follicle

a sac like structure containing follicle cells in one or more layers that encloses the gamete

226

Trace the pathway of a sperm cell through a female reproductive system

vagina, cervix, uterus, uterine tube, peritoneal cavity

227

What day during the menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikely?

anytime, but the 3-day interval around ovulation