Faith's chapter 5 Evolution AP Enviromental

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1

Faith Besaw

Chapter 5 APES

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Adaptation

a trait that improves an individual’s fitness

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Adaptive radiation

the diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches

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Allopatric speciation

the process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation

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Artificial selection

Human intervention in animal or plant reproduction to ensure that certain desirable traits are represented in successive generations

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Background extinction

when species become extinct over a long period of time

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Bottleneck effect

a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size

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Distribution

areas of the world in which a species live

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Ecosystem diversity

the variety of ecosystems within a given region

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Endemic species

one whose habitat is restricted to a particular area

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Evolution

a change in the genetic composition of a population over time

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Fitness

an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce

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Fossils

the remains of an organism that has been preserved in rock

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Founder effect

a change in a population descended from a small number of colonizing individuals

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Fundamental niche

the suite of idea environmental conditions for a species

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Genes

a physical location on the chromosomes within each cell of an organism

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Gene pool

the stock of different genes in an interbreeding population

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Generalist species

able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example, a heterotroph with a varied diet)

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Genetic diversity

the variety of genes within a given species

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Genetic drift

a change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating

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Genetic engineering

the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material

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Genetically modified organism (GMO)

an organism produced by copying genes from a species with a desirable trait and inserting them into another species

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Genotype

the complete set of genes in an individual

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Geographical isolation

physical separation of a group of individuals from others of the same species

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Macroevolution

evolution that gives rise to new species, genera, families, classes, or phyla

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Mass extinction

a large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time

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Microevolution

evolution occurring below the species level

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Mutations

a random change in the genetic code produced by a mistake in the copying process

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Natural selection

(Darwin) key ideas: individuals produce an excess of offspring’s; not all offspring’s can survive; individuals differ in their traits

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Phenotype

a set of traits expressed by an individual

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Phylogenies

the branching patterns of evolutionary relationships

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Range of tolerance

the limits to the abiotic conditions that a species can tolerate

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Realized niche

the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives

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Recombination

the genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during reproductive cell division

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Reproductive isolation

the result of two populations within a species evolving separately so they can no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring

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Species diversity

the variety of species within a given ecosystem

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Species evenness

the relative proportion of different species in a given area

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Species richness

the number of species in a given area

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Specialist species

can only thrive in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet

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Sympatric speciation

the evolution of one species into two, within geographic isolation