US History Chapter 11

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Will Rogers

Folksy comedian who focused on Americans' passion for buying things


Henry Ford's Techniques

Scientific management; studied the techniques of Chicago meatpacking houses which led him to use an assembly line, which then minimized the time it took to manufacture a Model T; doubled the wages of his workers and reduced their workday from 9 hours to 8 hours


Scientific Management

Experts Henry Ford hired to improve his mass-production techniques; new method of improving efficiency in which experts looked at every step of a manufacturing process to find ways to reduce time, effort, and expense


Impacts of the Automotive Industry

Stimulated growth in the steel, glass, rubber, asphalt, wood, gasoline, insurance, and road-construction industries; prompted oil discoveries; created better-paying jobs; the use of railroads declined; led to the development of suburban communities (tended to be more Conservative & Republican)


Buying on Margin

Another form of buying on credit; a buyer paid as little as 10% of the stock price upfront to a broker; the buyer then paid the broker for the rest over a period of time


Installment Buying

Process in which a consumer would make a small down payment and then pay off the rest of the debt in regular monthly payments; allowed Americans to own products they might have had to save up for for years


Conditions for Farmers in the 1920s

Farmer incomes declined as they suffered from growing debt and falling farm prices


Main Reason for the Increased Wealth of Business Owners in the 1920s

The use of "scientific" techniques and psychological research allowed advertisers to sell more products to Americans; magazines and newspapers focused on desires and fears of Americans rather than on what people really needed


Bull Market

Period of rising stock prices; Americans placed their money into stocks in hopes of getting rich quick


Policies of Roosevelt and Coolidge

Passed laws to break up monopolies, protect workers,and restrict the absolute freedom of business leaders


Policies of Warren G. Harding

Signed a bill raising protective tariff rates by about 25%; tax on imports made it easier for American producers to sell goods at home; favored a return to laissez-faire; worked to reduce government regulation of business


The Ohio Gang

Harding, along with many of his close friends, were greedy men who saw government service as a chance to get rich at the expense of the citizens they were supposed to serve; some wasted money on taxpayers' money and others used their positions to accept money from criminals


Condition of the economy under Coolidge

Followed the goals of Mellon by reducing the national debt, lowering the federal budget, and lowering taxes; the economy generated industrial profits, caused growth in the stock market,and general prosperity


The main focus of Republican Foreign Policy in the early 1920s

Worked to avoid another arms race by attending the Washington Naval Disarmament; created the Kellogg-Briand Act which was an agreement in which countries outlawed war


Andrew Mellon

Wealthy banker who became Warren Harding's Secretary of the Treasury; his idea of prudent economic policy was to support legislation that advanced business interests; disliked the relatively new income tax, favoring low taxes on individuals and corporations; reduced spending from $18 billion to $3 billion


Dawes Plan

Agreement in which the United States loaned money to Germany, allowing Germany to make reparation payments to Britain and France; allowed Britain and France to repay their debts to the U.S.


Impact of Prohibition on Organized Crime

Supporters of prohibition rightly pointed out that alcohol was the root of every problem from child abuse to job productivity


Repeal of Prohibition

Did not pass until 1933; caused more crime conflicts


Largest Cultural Split in America occurred between which two groups?

Traditionalism and modernism (urban and rural people)


Reason for formal education in the cities

difference between low paying jobs and high paying jobs; farms got low paying jobs since they didn't care about school while those in cities did


Scopes Monkey Trial

1925 trial of a Tennessee school teacher for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution


Nativists' opposition to immigration

People who were unable to read or write their own language were not able to enter the U.S.


Primary motivation behind the National Origins Act

The number of immigrants of a given nationality each year could not exceed 2% of the number of people of that nationality living in the U.S. in 1890


Ku Klux Klan

Organization that promotes hatred and discrimination against specific ethnic and religious groups


Definition of Prohibition

The forbidding by law of the manufacture, transport, and sale of alcohol


"New women"

More liberated; wore dresses with shorter hemlines, put on more makeup, danced to the latest crazes, and generally assumed that she had the same political and social rights as any man; rejected Victorian morality


Impacts of the consumer economy of the 1920s on women

Benefited women due to electric vacuums and irons that took some of the labor out of chores; didn't help women in rural areas that did not have access to electricity


Impacts of the radio

Standardized culture by allowing everyone across America to listen to the same songs, learn the same dances, and share the same popular culture; allowed people to hear about current events


Sigmund Freud

Psychologist who argued that much of human behavior is driven not by rational thought but by unconscious desires


Reason for African migration to the north in the 1920s

Better wages; growing political voice; black middle and upper classes; served as role models to the younger generation; wanted to escape racism, poor housing conditions, and labor in the lowest paying jobsl


Marcus Garvey

Promoted the idea of universal black nationalism and organized a "back to Africa" movement; did not call for blacks and whites to work together to improve America; advocated the separation of the races


What was jazz?

A musical form based on improvisation; jazz musicians creatively recombine different forms of music, including African American blues and ragtime and European-based popular music


Focus of Harlem Renaissance literature

Claude McKay: showed ordinary African Americans struggling for dignity and advancement in the face of discrimination and economic hardships
Jean Toomer: portrayed a plea to remember and preserve the past
Zora Neale Hurston: expressed new longing for independence felt by many women


Impact of the sense of group identity created by the Harlem Renaissance

Gave a voice to African American culture; altered the way many white Americans viewed African American culture an even the way African Americans viewed themselves


Harlem Renaissance

Period in which African American novelists, poets, and artists celebrated their culture; helped give a new vocabulary and dynamic to race relations in the United States


Langston Hughes

Most powerful African American literary voice of his time; the force of a movement was a celebration of African American culture and life; captured the remarkable diversity of everyday African American life