AP World History Unit 3

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1

Black Death

An outbreak of bubonic plague that was pandemic throughout Europe and much of Asia in the 14th century.

2

bushido

the code of honor and morals developed by the Japanese samurai.

3

caliphate

the era of Islam's ascendancy from the death of Mohammed until the 13th century; some Moslems still maintain that the Moslem world must always have a calif as head of the community; "their goal was to reestablish the Caliphate"

4

chinampa

Chinampa is a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.

5

chivalry

the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code.

6

christendom

the worldwide body or society of Christians.

7

civil service exam

examinations implemented in various countries for admission to the civil service.

8

crusades

a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.

9

dar al-Islam

areas where Muslims are in the majority

10

diffusion of scientific and technological traditions

printing and gunpowder came into play, spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus, trun of greek science and philosophy to western europe.

11

entrepot

a port, city, or other center to which goods are brought for import and export, and for collection and distribution.

12

feudalism/ decentralized government

the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.

13

fiefs

an estate of land, esp. one held on condition of feudal service.

14

gentry

people of good social position, specifically (in the UK) the class of people next below the nobility in position and birth.

15

grand canal in china

the Grand Canal furthered an indigenous and growing economic market in China's urban centers since the Sui period. It has allowed faster trading and has improved China's economy.

16

great warming period (800-1300)

a warmer period in medieval times

17

griots

a member of a class of traveling poets, musicians, and storytellers who maintain a tradition of oral history in parts of West Africa.

18

guilds

a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power.

19

hajj

the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime.

20

hanseatic league

a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas; formed in 1241 and most influential in the 14th century when it included over 100 towns and functioned as an independent political power; the last official assembly was held in 1669

21

khan/khanates

the territory ruled by a khan

22

kow tow

kneel and touch the ground with the forehead in worship or submission as part of Chinese custom.

23

little ice age

a comparatively cold period occurring between major glacial periods, in particular one such period that reached its peak during the 17th century.

24

manorialism

an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire, was widely practiced in medieval western and parts of central Europe, and was slowly replaced by the advent of a money-based market

25

mit'a

Mit'a was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire. Historians use the hispanicized term mita to differentiate the system as it was modified and intensified by the Spanish colonial government.

26

neoconfuscianism

a movement in religious philosophy derived from Confucianism in China around AD 1000 in response to the ideas of Taoism and Buddhism.

27

nobility

the group of people belonging to the noble class in a country, esp. those with a hereditary or honorary title.

28

papacy

the office or authority of the pope.

29

quipu

an ancient Inca device for recording information, consisting of variously colored threads knotted in different ways.

30

samurai

a member of a powerful military caste in feudal Japan, esp. a member of the class of military retainers of the daimyos.

31

serfs

an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.

32

sharia

Islamic canonical law based on the teachings of the Koran and the traditions of the Prophet (Hadith and Sunna), prescribing both religious and secular duties and sometimes retributive penalties for lawbreaking. It has generally been supplemented by legislation adapted to the conditions of the day, though the manner in which it should be applied in modern states is a subject of dispute between Islamic fundamentalists and modernists.

33

shia

one of the two main branches of Islam, followed esp. in Iran, that rejects the first three Sunni caliphs and regards Ali, the fourth caliph, as Muhammad's first true successor.

34

southernization

came from the observation that "Southern" values and beliefs were becoming more central to political success, reaching an apogee in the 1990s, with a Democratic president and vice-president from the South and Congressional leaders in both parties being from the South.

35

sufi

a Muslim ascetic and mystic.

36

sultan

a Muslim sovereign.

37

sunni

one of the two main branches of Islam, commonly described as orthodox, and differing from Shia in its understanding of the Sunna and in its acceptance of the first three caliphs.

38

swahili

a Bantu language widely used as a lingua franca in East Africa and having official status in several countries.

39

tax farming

Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting, by its assignment by legal contract to a third party, a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered.

40

terraces

a level paved area or platform next to a building; a patio or veranda.

41

synthesized

make (something) by synthesis, esp. chemically.

42

tribute collection

something that you say, give, or do to show respect or affection for someone and the collection of it

43

ulama

a body of Muslim scholars recognized as having specialist knowledge of Islamic sacred law and theology.