Nervous System Flashcards


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1

Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS are called

ganglia

2

A resting membrane potential is due to

A. extracellular fluid rich in sodium
B. intracellular fluid rich in potassium
C. plasma membrane that is more permeable to potassium than sodium

3

The term “ saltatory conduction” refers to

conduction of a nerve impulse along a myelinated axon

4

A local anesthetic functions by blocking

the opening of sodium channels

5

Most excitatory neurons in the CNS communicate via the neurotransmitter

Glutamate

6

Catecholamines include the following

dopamine
adrenalin
norepinephrine

7

Following injury to a peripheral neuron, chromatolysis occurs, which is

breakup of the Nissl bodies

8

What part of the neuron is necessary for regeneration to occur after injury

Neurolemma

9

The “glue” that holds the nerve tissue

neuroglia

10

During an action potential

sodium gates open first

11

Caused by a virus in the brain

rabies

12

In the adult, the spinal cord extends from the medulla to

second lumbar

13

Swelling or knot. Small masses of nercous tissue, consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies, that are located outside the brain and spinal cord.

Ganglia

14

The cell bodies of peripheral sensory neurons are located in swellings known as

posterior root ganglia

15

Sensory spinal tracts are also known as

ascending

16

The phrenic nerve stimulates the diaphragm, arises from the

cervical

17

What are the five major components of a spinal reflex arc

receptor---sensory neuron---intergrating certer site of synapse between sensory and other neuron---decision making area in gray matter---motor neuron---effector

18

The polio virus typically attacks

cord in the anterior gray horns of spinal

19

The contralateral reflex that helps you maintain your balance when the flexor reflex is initiated is the

crossed extensor reflex

20

“Loss of sensation to a neuron” is called

nerve block

21

The avascular layer of the meninges is

arachnoid

22

The roots of these spinal nerves angle inferiorly in the vertebral cavity from the end of the spinal cord

Cauda Equina

23

Arises from the conus medullaris. Extension of the pia mater that extends inferiorly and anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx.

Filum terminale

24

In the center of the gray commissure is a small space that extend the entire length of the spinal cord and filled with cerbrospinal fluid

Central canal

25

“Inflammation" of a nerve due to a bone fracture

neuritis

26

Continuously circulates through cavities in the brain and spinal cord and around the brain and spinal cord in the subarachnoid space. Btw the arachnoid mater and pia mater.

CSF- Cerebrospinal Fluid

27

Allows exchange of nutrients and wates products between the blood and nervous tissue

CSF circulation

28

CSF is formed in the

choroid plexuses fo each lateral ventrical

29

CSF is a clear, colorless liquid that protects the brain and spinal cord from

chemical and physical injuries

30

Transmits pain and temperature sensations to the thalamus and then to the cerebrum

Spinothalamic tract

31

Conscious control over eye, jaw, and face muscles

Corticobulbar tracts

32

Conscious control of skeletal muscles

Corticospinal tract

33

Classification of a spinal nerve b/c the posterior root contains sensory axons and the anterior root contains motor axon

Mixed nerve

34

Procedure used to withdraw CSF for diagnostic purposes

Spinal tap(lumbar puncture)7

35

Contains interstitial fluid

Subdural space

36

The primary motor area of the cerebral cortex is located in the

precentral gyrus in parietal lobe (Fig 14.15)

37

The primary visual area and visual association area of the cerebral cortex are both located in the

Occipital lobe (Fig 14.15)

38

Temporary cerebral dysfunction including dizziness, weakness…etc is referred to as

transient ischemic attack (TIA)(disorders)

39

The large, dural venous extending over the top of the brain is

superior cerebral vein (Fig 14.4)

40

Cranial nerve V is the

trigeminal nerve (Fig 14.5 and 14.20)

41

Where is the place responsible for maintaining consciousness and for awakening from sleep (center name).

reticular activating system (RAS) (under Reticular Formation before title CEREBELLUM)

42

The superior cerebellar peduncles connect ___ and ___ (which two places).

Cerebral motor areas to spinal cord (Fig 14.7)

43

The main brain region the regulates posture and balance is the

cerebellum(Fig 14.8)

44

Raising osmotic pressure in the extracellular fluid stimulates the thirst center located in the

hypothalamus (Fig 14.20)

45

Control of the ANS is an important function of the area of the diencephalons called

hypothalamus (Fig 14.20)

46

The upfolds of cerebral tissue are known as ___ or ___.

gyri or convoltutions (Fig 14.11)

47

The postcentral gyrus of the cerebrum contains the primary ___ area.

primary somatosensory area (Fig 14.15)

48

Subdivisions of the PNS are the

Somatic, autonomic, enteric

49

Two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are the ? division and the ? division

Sympathetic, parasympathetic

50

The sensory function of the nervous system involves sensory receptors sensing certain changes in the

internal and external environments

51

Sensory neurons receive electical signals from

sensory receptors

52

The integrative function of the nervous system involves

analyzing sensory information
Storing some of it
Making decisions regarding appropriate responses

53

Motor functions involves

responding to intergration decisions

54

A neuron's resting membrance potential is established and maintained by differences

in both ion concentration and electrical gradients

55

A neuron's resting membrance potential is established and maintained by the fact that there are numerous large,

nondiffusible anions in the cytosol

56

A neuron's resting membrance potential is established and maintained by sodium potassium pumps that help to

maintain the proper distribution of sodium and potassium

57

Neurons with just one process extending from the cell body; are always sensory neurons

unipolar neurons

58

Small phagocytics neuroglia

microglia

59

Help maintain an appropriate chemical environment for generations of action potentials by neurons; part of the blood-brain barrier

astrocytes

60

Provide myelin sheath for CNS axons

oligodendrocytes

61

Contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals, unmyelinated axons and neuroglia

gray matter

62

A cluster of cell bodies within the CNS

nucleus

63

Form CSF and assist in its circulation; form blood-cerebrospinal barrier

Ependymal cells

64

Neurons having several dendrites and one axon; most commons neuronal type

multipolar neurons

65

Neurons with one main dendrite and one axon; found in the retina of the eye

bipolar neurons

66

Provide myelin sheath for PNS axon

Schwann cells

67

Support neurons in PNS ganglia

Satellite cells

68

A cluster of neuronal cell bodies located outside the brain and spinal cord

Ganglia

69

Aggregation of myelinated processes from many neurons

white matter

70

Bundles of axons and associated connective tissue and blood vessels lying outside of the CNS

Nerve

71

Extensive neuronal networks that help regulate the digestive system

Enteric plexus

72

Sequence of rapidly occurring events that decreases and eventually reverses the membrane potential and the restores it to the resting state; a newve impluse

action potential

73

A small deviation from the resting membrane potential that makes the membrane either more or less polarized

graded ptential

74

Period of time when a second action potential can be initiated with a very strong stimulus

Relative refractory period

75

The minimum level of depolarization required for a nerve impulse to be generated

threshold

76

The recovery of the resting membrane potential

repolarization

77

A neurotransmitter caused hyperpolarizaiton of the postysnaptic membrane

inhibitory postsynaptic potential

78

A neurtransmitter caused depolarization of the postysnaptice membrane

excitatory postsynaptic potential

79

Time during which a neuron cannot produce an action potential even with a very strong stimulus

Absolute refractory period

80

Polarization that is less negative than the resting level

Depolarizing graded potential

81

Results from the buildup of neurotransmitter released simultaneuously by several presynaptic end bulbs

spatial summation

82

The hyperpolarization that occurs after the repolarizing phase of an action potential

after-hyperpolarizing phase

83

polarization that is more negative than the resting level

hyperpolarizing fraded potential

84

Results from the buildup of neurotransmitter from the rapid, successive release by a single presynaptic end bulb

temporal summation

85

The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and organelles

Neurofibrils

86

Rough endoplasmic reticulum in neurons; site of protein synthesis

Nissl bodies

87

Store neurotransmitter

synaptic vesicles

88

The process that progagates nerve impulses toward another neuron, muscle fiber, or gland cell

axon

89

The highly branched receiving or input portion of a neuron

dendrites

90

A multilayered lipid and protein covering for axons produced by neuroglia

myelin sheath

91

The outer nucleated cytoplasmic layer of the Schwann cell

Neurolemma

92

First portion of the axon, closest to the axon hillock

initial segment

93

Site of communication between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell

Synapse

94

Form the cytoskeleton of a neuron

Neurofibrils

95

Gaps in the nyelin sheath of an axon

Nodes of Ranvier

96

General term for any neuronal process

Nerve fiber

97

Area where the axon joins the cell body

Axon hillock

98

Area where nerve impluse arise

Trigger zone

99

The numerous fine processes at the ends of an axon and its collaterals

Axon terminals

100

Interstitial fluid-filled space separating two neurons

Synaptic cleft

101

A reflux resulting in the contraction of a skeletal muscle when it is stretched

Stretch reflex

102

Receptors that monitor changes in muscle length

Muscle spindles

103

A balance-maintaining reflex

crossed extensors reflex

104

Operates as a feedback mechanism to control muscle tension by causing muscle relaxation when muscle force becomes too extreme

tendon reflex

105

Reflex arc that consists of one sensory and one motor neuron

Monosynaptic reflex

106

Acts as a feedback mechanism to control muscle length by causing muscle contraction

Stretch reflex

107

Sensory impulses enter on one side of the spinal cord and motor impulses exit on the opposite side

Contra lateral reflex arc

108

Occurs when sensory nerve impulse travels up and down the spinal cord, thereby activating several motor neurons and more then one effector

Inter segmental reflex arc

109

Polysynaptic reflex initiated in response to a painful stimulus

Flexor (withdraw)reflex

110

Receptors that monitor changes in muscle tension

Tendon (Golgi tendon) organ

111

Maintains proper muscle tone

Stretch reflex

112

Reflex pathway that contains sensory neurons, inter neurons, and motor neurons

Polysynaptic reflex

113

Motor nerve impulses exit the spinal cord on the smae side that sensory impulses entered the spinal cord

Ipsilateral reflex arc

114

Protects the tendons and muscle from damage due to excessive tension

Tendon reflex

115

A neural circuit that coordinates body movements by causing contraction of one muscle and relaxation of antagonistic muscles or relaxation of a muscle and contraction of the antagonists

Reciprocal innervation

116

The joining together of the anterior rami of adjacent nerves

Plexus

117

Spinal nerve branches that serve the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk

Posterior (dorsal)ramus

118

Spinal nerve branches that serve the muscles and structures of the upper and lower limbs and the lateral and ventral trunk

anterior (ventral) root

119

Area of the spinal cord from which nerves to and from the upper limbs arise

cervical enlargement

120

The roots form the nerves that arise from the inferior part of the spinal cord but do not leave the vertebral column at the same level as they exit the cord

Cauda equina

121

Contains motor neurons axons and conducts impulses from the spinal cord to the peripheral organs and cells

Anterior (ventral) ramus

122

Avascular covering of spinal cord composed of delicate collagen fibers and some elastic fibers

Arachnoid mater

123

Contains sensory neurons axons and conducts impluses from the peripheral receptors into the spinal cord

Posterior (dorsal) ramus

124

Superficial spinal cord covering of dense, irregular connective tissue

dura mater

125

An extension of the pia mater that anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx

filum terminale

126

Extending the length of the spinal cord, these pia mater thickenings fuse with the arachnoid mater and dura mater and help to protect the spinal cord from shock and sudden displacement

denticulate ligaments

127

Thin transparent connective tissue composed of interlacing bundles of collagen fibers and some elastic fibers adhering to the spinal cord's surface

Pia mater

128

Space within the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid

Central canal

129

Spinal nerve branch that supplies vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of the spinal cord, and meninges

Meningeal branch

130

Provides the entire nerve supply of the shoulders and upper limbs

Brachial plexus

131

Provide the nerve supply of the skin and muscles of the head,m neck, and superior part of the shoulders and chest

Cervical plexus

132

Provides the nerve supply of the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of the lower limbs

lunbar plexus

133

Provides the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs

Sacral plexus

134

Formed by the anterior rami of C1-C4 with some contribution by C5

Cervical plexus

135

Formed by anterior rami of S4-S5 and coccygeal nerves

coccygeal plexus

136

Formed by the anterior rami of L1-L4

Lumbar plexus

137

Formed by the anterior rami of C5-C8 and T1

Brachial plexus

138

Formed by the anterior rami of L4-L5 and S1-S4

Sacral plexus

139

Phrenic nerve arises from this plexus

Cervical plexus

140

Median nerve arises from this plexus

Brachial plexus

141

Sciatic nerve arises from this plexus

Sacral plexus

142

Femoral nerve arises from this plexus

Lumbar plexus

143

Supplies a small area of skin in coccygeal region

Coccygeal plexus

144

Injury to this plexus can affect breathing

Cervical plexus

145

Cranial nerve that has dermatome

Trigerminal nerve

146

Largest nerve in the body

sciatica

147

Oculomotor

CN III

148

Trigerminal

CN V

149

abducens

CN VI

150

vestibulocochlear

CN VIII

151

acessory

CN XI

152

vagus

CN X

153

facial

CN VII

154

glossopharyngeal

CN IX

155

olfactory

CN I

156

trochlear

CN IV

157

optic

CN II

158

hypogloccal

CN XII

159

Functions in sense of smell

CN VIII

160

Functions in chewing

CN V

161

Functions in facial expression and secretion of saliva and tears

CN VII

162

Functions in movement of tongue during speech and swallowing

CN XII

163

functions in secretion of saliva, taste, regulation of blood pressure and muscle sense

CN IX

164

sensory only

CN I, CN II

165

functions in eye movement by controlling extrinsic eye muscles

CN III, CN IV, CN VI

166

functions in swallowing and head movements

XI

167

Functions in secretion of digestive fluids

CN X

168

Emotional brain; involved in olfaction and memory

Limbic system

169

Bridge connecting parts of the brain with each other

pons

170

Sensory relay area

thalamus

171

Alerts the cerbral cortex to incoming sensory signals and helps regulate muscle tone

reticular formation

172

The motor command center; regulates posture and balance

Cerebellum

173

Lacks a blood-brain barrier; can monitor chemical changes in the blood

circumbentricular organ

174

Sire of decussation of pyramids

Medula oblongata

175

Site of pneumataxic and apneustic areas

pons

176

Secretes melatoni

pineal gland

177

Contains sensory, motor, and association areas

cerebrum

178

Responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep

reticular activating system

179

Controls ANS

Hypothalamus

180

Contains reflex centers for movement of the eyes, head, and neck

Midbrain (mesencephalon)

181

Plays an essential role in awareness and in the acquisition of knowledge; cognition

Thalamus, cerebrum

182

Several groups of nuclei that control large autonomic movements of skeletal muscles and help regulate muscle tone required for specific body movements

Basal ganglia

183

Produces hormones that requlate endocrine gland function

Hypothalamus

184

Contains the vital cardiovascular center and medullary rhythmicity center

Medulla oblongata

185

Protrusions in the medulla formed by the large corticospinal tracts

Pyramids

186

Dura mater extension that separates the two cerebral hemispheres

Falx cerebri

187

Fingerlike extension of arachnoid mater where CSF reabsorbed

Arachnoid villi

188

Dura mater extension that separates the two cerebellar hemispheres

falx cerebelli

189

Located in the hypothalamus; relay stations for reflexes related to smell

Mammillary bodies

190

Fold in the cerbral cortex

Gyri

191

Shallow grooves in the cerebral cortex

Sulci

192

Bundles of white matter that relay information between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain

Cerebellar peduncles

193

A thick band of sensory and motor tracts that connect the cerebral cortex with the brain stem and spinal cord

Internal capsule

194

Dura mater extension that separates the cerbrum from the cerebellum

Tentorium cerebelli

195

Thin membranous partition between the lateral ventricles

septum pellucidum

196

Allows planning and production of speech

Broca's Area

197

Interprets pitch and rhythm

Primary auditory area

198

Controls voluntary contraction of muscles

Primary motor area

199

Allows recognition and evaluation of visual experiences

Visual association area

200

Integration and interpretation of somatic sensations: comparison of past to present sensations

Somatosensory association area

201

Receives inpulses for touch, proprioception, pain, and temperature

Primary somatosensory area

202

Receive impulses for taste

Primary gustatory area

203

Interpretation of sounds as speech, music, or noise

Auditory association area

204

Receives impulses from many sensory and association areas as well as the thalamus and brain stem; allows formation of thoughts so appropriate action can occur

Common integrative area

205

Translates words into thoughts

Wernicke's area

206

Receives impulses for smell

Primary olfactory area

207

Allows interpretation of shape, color, and movement

Primary visual area

208

Coordinates mucles movement for complex, learned sequential motor activities

Premotor area

209

Involved in scanning eye movements

Frontal eye field