Chapter 4 Elements and the Periodic Table

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1

What is the smallest particle of an element?

Atom

2

Negatively charged particles that are lost,gained, or shared in chemical reactions are known as?

Electrons

3

Positively charged particles in the atom's nucleus are known as?

Protons

4

The central core of an atom containing protons and neutrons is the?

Nucleus

5

A particle that has no electrical charge and the mass of one amu is?

Neutron

6

What two particles are located in the nucleus?

Protons and Neutrons

7

The number of protons in an atom is the element's?

Atomic number

8

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called?

Isotopes

9

Mass number is what

the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

10

Atomic mass increases in what direction?

from left to right across the periodic table

11

An element's properties can be predicted from its

location on the periodic table

12

Who created the first periodic table?

Dmitir Mendeleev

13

Horizontal rows in the periodic table are called

periods

14

Vertical columns in the periodic table are called

groups

15

A representation of an element usually consisting of one or two letters is known as what?

chemical symbol

16

What are four properties of metals?

luster, malleability,ductility,conductivity

17

As you move from left to right across the periodic table, reactivity tends to increase or decrease?

decrease

18

The most reactive group of metals in the periodic table are what?

Alkali metals

19

What two rows are placed at the very bottom of the periodic table?

lanthanides and actinides

20

How are synthetic elements made?

Particle accelerators

21

What are the properties of nonmetals?

poor conductors of electric current & heat, dull, and brittle

22

What is a diatomic molecule?

a molecule that consists of two atoms

23

Group 17 elements tend to gain or share one electron when they react with other elements; they are known as?

Halogens

24

Group 18 elements are unreactive and known as what?

Inert gases

25

Between the metals and nonmetals in the periodic table are?

semimetals

26

The atomic nuclei of unstable isotopes release fast-moving particles and energy in what process?

radioactive decay

27

How did Becquerel discover radioactive decay?

On accident while studying a mineral containing uranium

28

Radioactive decay produces three types of particles. What are they?

alpha, beta, gamma

29

How are radioactive isotopes used?

tracers, industrial processes, and diagnosing and treating disease

30

How are radioactive isotopes used to treat some forms of cancer?

target cancer cells and destroy them