US History Chapter 10

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Glorification of the military that grew in the competing countries and fueled the arms race; countries began building up their armies and technologically advancing weapons



Caused leaders to act recklessly; they knew that if they did declare war, powerful allies were obligated to fight along with them; hoped a foreign war would smooth over domestic problems



Political, military, and economic domination of strong nations over weaker territories; competed for colonies due to their cheap raw materials and a market for goods; Europe needed colonies to ensure industrial dominance



Devotion to one's nation; Europeans began to reject the earlier idea of a nation as a collection of different ethnic groups, but instead, they believed that a nation should express the nationalism of a single ethnic group;


Social Darwinists' reason for going to war

Social Darwinists believed the best nation would come out ahead in the constant competition among countries


Triple Alliance (central powers)

Consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy


Triple Entente

Consisted of France, Russia, and Great Britain


Internationalist view

Believed the U.S. should play an active role in world affairs and work toward achieving a just peace but not enter the war


Interventionist view

Felt that the war did affect American interests and that the U.S. should intervene in the conflict on the side of the Allies


Isolationist view

Believed the war was none of America's business and that the nation should isolate itself from the hostilities


Early reasons for America's neutrality

Wilson didn't want to see the war set Americans against one another; preferred to maintain traditional American isolation from European disputes; many businesses benefited from the increased demand by warring nations for American goods



Many believed it was a dangerous course that could actually provoke war


Reasons for America's entry into the war

American trade with the Allies had sustained Britain and France in the war while the British blockade of Germany had stopped the flow of American goods to the central powers


Reasons for passing the National Defense act and Naval Construction Act

Passed in order to prepare for the possibility of U.S. involvement in the war


Zimmerman Note

Sent to Mexico from the Germans proposing an alliance with them, stating that if the U.S. declared war on Germany, Mexico should declare war on the U.S.; intercepted by the British



Soldiers killed, wounded, or missing



British passenger liner that was sunk by a German U-boat; German officials claimed the ship was carrying ammunition and other contraband; Germany promised not to sink anymore passenger ships, but violated it by sinking the Sussex


Bernard Baruch

An influential Wall Street investment broker who reported directly to the president; the WIB regulated all industries engaged in the war effort


George Creel

The director of the CPI who was appointed by Wilson; combined education and a widespread advertising campaign to "sell America"


Views of NAWSA during WWI

Dropped its initial peace initiatives and supported America's war objectives; after adopting this new policy NAWSA doubled in size


Committee on Public Information

Government agency created during WWI to encourage Americans to support the war; it was their job to educate the public about the causes and nature of the war; had to convince Americans that the war effort was just a cause


Council on National Defense

Created an array of new federal administrative agencies to oversee different phases of the war effort; individual agencies regulated food production, coal and petroleum distribution, and railway use; the government determined what crops farmers grew, what products industries produced, and how supplies moved around on the nation's trains


The Red Cross

Red Cross workers were a symbol of caring in the midst of fear during WW1; about 18,000 American Red Cross nurses cared for the wounded soldiers and civilians during the war; their job was difficult and often dangerous; nearly 300 nurses lost their lives


The Sedition Act of 1918

Made it unlawful to use "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the constitution, or the military forces


Reasons for the African American great migration

African Americans moved from the south up North to places like Chicago, to go work in factories; there were many reasons they left, such as, escaping the violent racism of the South, others desired better jobs and a chance for economic advancement, which wartime industry in the North offered; some dreamed of a better future for their children


Reasons for Mexican immigration to the United States during WWI

Sought work on large ranches and farms in Texas and along the Pacific Coast, which took away from American work and increased the amount of food produced


Number of American combat troops in WWI



Postwar benefits for women

Before the war, some American women campaigned for women's suffrage; many feared that the war would draw attention away from their efforts


Selective service act

Act passed by congress in 1917 authorizing a draft of men for military service


Espionage act

Act passed by congress in 1917 enacting severe penalties for anyone engaged in disloyal or treasonable activities


Reasons for the German surrender

Failed offensives weakened them; Allied counterattacks and exhaustion ended their great offensive


The league of nations

World organization established after WWI to promote peaceful cooperation between countries


Wilson's "peace without victory"

He believed victory would mean peace forced upon the loser; peace inspired by noble ideals, not greed and vengeance


US senate's rejection of the Treaty of Versailles

Most senators wanted the U.S. to participate in world affairs; Wilson and his opponents refused to put aside personal and political differences; League of Nations proved unable to maintain peace among nations



Isolationist senators who opposed any treaty ending WWI that had a League of Nations folded into it; disliked article 10 which called for mutual defense by the signers of the treaty



A group of senators, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, who opposed the Treaty of Versailles to end WWI, unless specific changes were included


Wilson's hope for the League of Nations

Hoped to secure "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike"



Payment for war damages placed upon Germany, blaming them for the start of the war


John J. Pershing

Commander of American forces in Europe; guided the creation of the American Expeditionary Force; trained millions of men into an effective fighting force


Vladimir Lenin

Led radical communists and staged a revolution and gained control of Russia; exposed secret treaties that Russia had made with other Allies in which they agreed to divide among themselves the empires of their enemies


Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti

Italian immigrants and known anarchists; they were charged with shooting and killing 2 men during a holdup at a shoe factory in a town near Boston


Causes of labor strikes in 1919

Demanding rewards for their wartime patriotism, for higher wages, and shorter work days


Causes of the Red Scare

Caused by fear of communist, socialists, anarchists, immigrants, and radical labor


Global economic leader after WWI

US industry and business had made huge profits selling arms and other war material to the allies



The territory France lost to Germany


Warren G. Harding's views vs. Woodrow Wilson's views

Harding knew that national elections seldom turned on a single issue; Harding campaigned for a rejection of Wilsonian idealism; He was tired of progressive reforms and foreign crusades; Wilson's view was to support both the League of Nations and his vision of the role the U.S. should play in the world


Postwar issues for farmers

During the war, the price of corn, wheat, cotton, cattle, and other agricultural goods had risen; after the war, prices fell sharply, making it difficult for farmers to pay their mortgages or buy what they needed for the next growing season


Influenza outbreak

Killed between 50 to 100 million people; originally a bird flu that mutated to spread to humans


Creditor Union

Other countries owed the United States more money than the United States owed them


Conscientious Objectors

People whose moral or religious beliefs forbid them to fight in wars