Cellular Transport basics

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created 9 years ago by pubepuller
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active/passive transport, osmosis, diffusion, isotonic/hypertonic solutions etc..
updated 9 years ago by pubepuller
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1

CELLULAR TRANSPORT

The movement in and out of cells that influence the internal concentration of molecules.

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2 TYPES OF CELLULAR TRANSPORT

Passive and Active

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PASSIVE TRANSPORT

The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy. - cell uses no energy, they travel from HIGH to LOW gradient.

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ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Movement across the cell membrane requiring energy (ATP) to be exerted by the cell. Travels from LOW to HIGH gradient.

2 Types: Vesicular Transport and Sodium Potassium Exchange Pump

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VESICULAR TRANSPORT

An active process in which materials move into or out of the cell enclosed as vesicles. Vesicles are bubble-like structures surrounded by a membrane. 2 types endocytosis and exocytosis.

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DIFFUSION

MOVEMENT of DISSOLVED molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. No work is performed for this to happen. diffusion is a spontaneous process

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OSMOSIS

diffusion of WATER molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher WATER concentration to an area of lower water concentration.

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FACILITATED DIFFUSION

diffusion of molecules ASSISTED by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane. example of a carrier protein is glucose.

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ENDOCYTOSIS

process by which a cell surrounds and TAKES IN material from its environment. (cell eating) 3 types: phagocytosis, pinocytosis, & receptor mediated endocytosis.

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EXOCYTOSIS

expulsion or secretion of materials FROM a cell - often used to expel wastes or neurotransmitters.

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3 TYPES OF ENDOCYTOSIS

Phagocytosis-the cell engulfing bacteria (WBC'S & Macrophages do this.)
Pinocytosis-(Cell drinking)
Receptor mediated Endocytosis-cells transported from OUT to IN through receptors (vesicles) located in cell membrane.

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SODIUM-POTASSIUM EXCHANGE PUMP

Protein that pumps sodium and potassium across the membrane in either direction working opposite of diffusion, against the concentration gradient.

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CONCENTRATION GRADIENT

difference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another

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ISOTONIC SOLUTION

solution that has an EQUAL concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.

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HYPOTONIC SOLUTION

solution that has a LOWER concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution

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HYPERTONIC SOLUTION

solution that has a HIGHER concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.