Prin. Sociology Chp. 7 Flashcards

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Which kind of inequality did Rousseau believe would always exist?

Natural Inequality or Physical: Someone is always going to be better than someone else at something.


Marx on Social Class

According to Marx, the bourgeoisie in capitalist societies exploit workers. The owners pay them enough to afford food and a place to live, and the workers, who do not realize they are being exploited, have a false consciousness, or a mistaken sense, that they are well off. They think they can count on their capitalist bosses to do what was best for them.


Weber on Social Class

Weber argued that owning property, such as factories or equipment, is only part of what determines a person’s social class. Social class for Weber included power and prestige, in addition to property or wealth. People who run corporations without owning them still benefit from increased production and greater profits.


Karl Marx and Jean-Jacques Rousseau tended to agree on at least one thing. What did they both argue was the primary source of social ills in society?

Due to the emergence of private property


Describe and explain what the German philosopher Georg Hegel meant by the interdependence of the master–slave analogy for inequality.

Freedom arrives when man becomes an atheist, finally recognizing that he and not the supernatural God of “picture-thinking” is the true God.


What is “equality of condition” and why did Thomas Malthus argue against striving for this form of equality?

Equality of condition is the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue his or her goals.

He thought that a more equal distribution of resources would increase the world’s population to unsustainable levels and ultimately bring about mass starvation and conflict.


What did Ferguson and Millar assert were the social developments resulting from the establishment of private property and what effects did they say is the result of the establishment of private property?

Establishment of private property- representing a huge improvement in society, because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and incentives


Why, according to Adam Ferguson and John Millar, is inequality necessary? In what way does their argument anticipate the “free rider problem”?

It means that some people are getting ahead and creating assets.


Ontological Equality

the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God.


Equality of opportunity

the idea that inequality of condition is acceptable so long as everyone has the same opportunities for advancement and is judged by the same standards.


Equality of Condition

the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue his or her goals.


Equality of Outcome

the notion that everyone in a society should end up with the same “rewards” regardless of his or her starting point, opportunities, or contributions.


How does the case of Carlos Slim Helu, one of the richest people on the planet, resemble a Horatio Alger story? How does the tale of Carlos Slim Helu simultaneously point to what is “wrong” about the way resources are distributed.

it is not the hard work itself that rescues the boy from his fate, but rather some extraordinary act of bravery or honesty, which brings him into contact with a wealthy elder gentleman, who takes the boy in as a ward. The boy might return a large sum of money that was lost or rescue someone from an overturned carriage, bringing the boy—and his plight—to the attention of some wealthy individual. It has been suggested that this reflects Alger's own patronizing attitude to the boys he tried to help.


Five Types of Social Stratification (Slavery)

Stratification system in which some people own others as their property and control their activities. People become slaves through birth, military defeat, or debt.


Five Types of Social Stratification (Caste)

Stratification system in which people are assigned to the social group (caste) of their parents. Their affiliation entails specific rights and duties and determines their lifestyle, occupational choices, wealth, and prestige.


Five Types of Social Stratification (Estate)

Stratification system based on legal and customary distinctions between a group that possesses land and power by virtue of noble birth, and a group that works for the first group in exchange for land and protection.


Five Types of Social Stratification (Class)

See Classical Sociological Thinkers > Karl Marx > Class and Elements of Society > Social Structure > Key Concepts: Marxism, Weber, and Conflict Theory > Social Class.


Five Types of Social Stratification (Social Mobility)

The movement of individuals or groups up and down stratification hierarchies. Mobility depends on type of stratification: It is quite rare under slavery and more common under class systems.


How does The Power Elite by C. Wright Mills help explain the repeal of the 2010 estate tax?

The United States is actually run by a small group representing the most wealthy, powerful, and influential people in business, government, and the military. According to Mills, their decisions dictate the policies of this country more than those of the voting public. Mills also pointed out that the influence of the power elite overlaps into many different areas. For example, a wealthy businessman may make large contributions to a particular political candidate.


Which American job sector has greatly increased since the oil crisis of 1973?

The service jobs, service workers in section of working class / middle class


What do sociologists mean by “socioeconomic status”? How is this measured and used?

is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group.


Compare and contrast the terms income and wealth. Which is more important to one’s life chances?

income- money received, esp. on a regular basis, for work or through investments.

Wealth- an abundance of valuable possessions or money.


Social Mobility

is shifting from one social status to another, commonly to a status that is either higher or lower.


Horizontal Social Mobility

movement from one position to another within the same social level, as changing jobs without altering occupational status, or moving between social groups having the same social status.


Vertical Social mobility

Movement up or down the social hierarchy


Structural Mobility

the movement of individuals along the social ladder based on changes in the social structure.


How does the status-attainment model help us understand social mobility?

based on the idea that inequality results primarily from differences in characteristics such as education, parents’ occupation, academic achievement, mental ability, values, and motivation. From this perspective, race, gender, ethnic, and class inequality result from an individual’s ability to compete successfully for higher status or income.


Why is the estate tax referred to as the “death” tax? What are the opponents’ arguments against the estate tax? What are the proponents’ arguments for the estate tax? What SES group is in favor of the estate tax and why?

Such property is transferred via a will, according to the state laws of intestacy or otherwise made as an incident of the death of the owner.


Nearly 90 percent of Americans self-identify as “middle class.” How is this possible? How might this self-identification be linked to ideology within the class system?

Because the Wealthy have most of the money in the country.