Anatomy Chapters 7 & 8
provides support against gravity. keeps homeostasis of calcium and blood with a narrow limit.
How many bones do most adults have?
Bone is composed of what tissue
Compact and Spongy
increase bulk where more stress placed, decrease bulk where less stress ispl
excessive development of bones. Bones become bigger and stronger
bones decrease in strength
How are bones limited in size.
Laws of Physics and Math. Organisms get biggger by power of three, bones the power of two.
Bones begin as ________, most human growth is over by the age of ____.
changing cartilage into bone tissue.
primary ossification center.
secondary ossification center, growth plate
Abnormal growth (acromegaly)
serious distortion of bone growth due to over production of growth hormone after growth plates are gone.
constant throughout life as long as you are healthy
break down bones
major mineral component. crystal made up of mostly calcium and phosphate coming from other parts of body. Can be made with strontium, which is radioactive and can damage the body.
What is contamination?
Toxins entering bone cells. From lead and strontium and other elements from the radioactive side of periodic table.
Bone Matrix formation is
minerals deposited on a framework of collagen.
necessary for collagen, without it, bones can't be mineralized.
promote matrix growth and masturation. Estrogens, androgens. adrenal gland secretes an adrenal steroid that opposes matrix growth and masturation. To secrete a balance. this is balance is held until menopause.
essental for normal matrix formation. Too much can cause brittle bones. If vitamin A isnt released in urine, it builds up in liver.
concentration of calcium ions in blood.
Why is calcium homeostasis necessary?
clotting, mineralization, and muscle contraction.
How much calcium is stored in the skeleton?
What does Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) do?
removes calcium from skeleton. There are 4 parathyroid hormones in the back of the neck. They produce (PTH) to get calcium from skeleton.
rise in blood calcium Usually due to a tumor on parathyroid rise in PTH.
calcium deposited in other parts of the body.
causes kidney stones, brittle bones, or fractures.
low blood calcium levels. Not enough PTH.
Cramps, spasms, personality changes, treatment is a large daily dose of vitamin D.
speeds up rate that calcium is deposited in bone. Happens in minutes.
List the Bone Types
Long, Short, Flat, irregular, wormian (sutural), and sesamoid.
What are long bones?
Bones that have a greater length than width. Usually curved for distribution of weight.
1 shaft. 2 or more epiphysis.
Femur, arm, hand, foot, and toe bones.
What are short bones?
Cube shaped. Length and width are about the same.
Spongy in the middle,compact outside.
Carpals and Tarsals
What are flat bones?
2 compact layers parallel to each other. Thin, large, protective places for muscles to be attached. Skull, scapula, and sternum.
What are irregular bones?
Bones of the face and vertebrae.
What are Wormian (sutural) bones?
Clusters of bones. Between bones of cranial bones.
What are sesamoid bones?
the bones found in tendons where there is a lot of pressure. Patella.
a fairly large rounded opening and nerves pass through.
Where is the Foramen Magnum?
tube like passage way within a bone.
Ex. Acoustic Meatus (ear canal).
air filled cavity inside of bones. Major sinuses on face, within facial bone.
Lined with mucous membranes. Can get infected. Regulate pressure in nasal cavities.
Groove that accommodates a nerve, vessel, or tendon. Groove in arm bone ulnar nerve passes through.
depression in or on a bone where another bone fits in. Ball and socket joints. Jawbonne (tempular mandibular joint)
any prominent projection with a rough surface.
relatively large convex prominence, projections on femurs.
above the narrow neck portion of a bone. femur, hip bone.
little, flat, shallow projections
little rounded process. tibia
ridge of border on a bone.
Ex.Iliac on hip bone
sharp, slender, process, back of spine
Axial Skeleton consists of
Skull, Hyoid, Ossicles, Vertebral Column, Thorax.
Appendicular Skeleton consists of
Shoulder Girdle, Arms, Pelvic Girdle, Legs.
forms skeletal structure of head and face
an occipital bone sit on first few vertebrae
depression on bone for mandible
back of temporal bone, air passages connect with inner ear to keep air flowing, used for muscle attachment.
verticle projections of mandible
fits into mandibular fossa to make TMJ temporal mandibular joint
Forms rest of hard pallet, walls of nasal cavity, and part of orbit.
creates and separates nasal cavity
Thoracic curve is exaggerated. Stooped posture,head and neck pushed forward, hunchback, can be caused by rickets
Exaggerated lumbar curve. Rear end sticks out, backwards bending. occurs commonly in pregnant women.
S or C shaped spine. Can become premanent and worse.
5 true, 5 false, 2 floating
Manubrium, body, and Xyphoid pricess
talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, lateral cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, medial cuneiform
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
functional junctions between bones
parts of skeletal system together
parts of skeleton to change shape during childbirth
body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction