Anatomy Chapters 7 & 8

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The Skeletal System & Joints
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1

bone

provides support against gravity. keeps homeostasis of calcium and blood with a narrow limit.

2

How many bones do most adults have?

206

3

Bone is composed of what tissue

Compact and Spongy

4

trabeculae

increase bulk where more stress placed, decrease bulk where less stress ispl

5

Hypertrophy

excessive development of bones. Bones become bigger and stronger

6

Atrophy

bones decrease in strength

7

How are bones limited in size.

Laws of Physics and Math. Organisms get biggger by power of three, bones the power of two.

8

Bones begin as ________, most human growth is over by the age of ____.

Cartilage; 20

9

Ossification

changing cartilage into bone tissue.

10

Shaft

primary ossification center.

11

Epiphysis

secondary ossification center, growth plate

12

Abnormal growth (acromegaly)

serious distortion of bone growth due to over production of growth hormone after growth plates are gone.

13

Remodeling is

constant throughout life as long as you are healthy

14

Osteoblasts

rebuild bones

15

osteoclasts

break down bones

16

Hydroxyapatite

major mineral component. crystal made up of mostly calcium and phosphate coming from other parts of body. Can be made with strontium, which is radioactive and can damage the body.

17

What is contamination?

Toxins entering bone cells. From lead and strontium and other elements from the radioactive side of periodic table.

18

Bone Matrix formation is

minerals deposited on a framework of collagen.

19

Vitamin C

necessary for collagen, without it, bones can't be mineralized.

20

Sex hormones

promote matrix growth and masturation. Estrogens, androgens. adrenal gland secretes an adrenal steroid that opposes matrix growth and masturation. To secrete a balance. this is balance is held until menopause.

21

Vitamin A

essental for normal matrix formation. Too much can cause brittle bones. If vitamin A isnt released in urine, it builds up in liver.

22

Calcium Homeostasis

concentration of calcium ions in blood.

23

Why is calcium homeostasis necessary?

clotting, mineralization, and muscle contraction.

24

How much calcium is stored in the skeleton?

99%

25

What does Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) do?

removes calcium from skeleton. There are 4 parathyroid hormones in the back of the neck. They produce (PTH) to get calcium from skeleton.

26

Hyperparathyroidism

rise in blood calcium Usually due to a tumor on parathyroid rise in PTH.
calcium deposited in other parts of the body.
causes kidney stones, brittle bones, or fractures.

27

Hypoparathyroidism

low blood calcium levels. Not enough PTH.
Cramps, spasms, personality changes, treatment is a large daily dose of vitamin D.

28

Calcitonin

speeds up rate that calcium is deposited in bone. Happens in minutes.

29

List the Bone Types

Long, Short, Flat, irregular, wormian (sutural), and sesamoid.

30

What are long bones?

Bones that have a greater length than width. Usually curved for distribution of weight.
1 shaft. 2 or more epiphysis.
Femur, arm, hand, foot, and toe bones.

31

What are short bones?

Cube shaped. Length and width are about the same.
Spongy in the middle,compact outside.
Carpals and Tarsals

32

What are flat bones?

2 compact layers parallel to each other. Thin, large, protective places for muscles to be attached. Skull, scapula, and sternum.

33

What are irregular bones?

Bones of the face and vertebrae.

34

What are Wormian (sutural) bones?

Clusters of bones. Between bones of cranial bones.

35

What are sesamoid bones?

the bones found in tendons where there is a lot of pressure. Patella.

36

Foramen

a fairly large rounded opening and nerves pass through.

37

Where is the Foramen Magnum?

Occipital bone.

38

Meatus.

tube like passage way within a bone.
Ex. Acoustic Meatus (ear canal).

39

Sinus

air filled cavity inside of bones. Major sinuses on face, within facial bone.
Lined with mucous membranes. Can get infected. Regulate pressure in nasal cavities.

40

Sulcus

Groove that accommodates a nerve, vessel, or tendon. Groove in arm bone ulnar nerve passes through.

41

Fossa

depression in or on a bone where another bone fits in. Ball and socket joints. Jawbonne (tempular mandibular joint)

42

Process

any prominent projection with a rough surface.

43

Condyle

relatively large convex prominence, projections on femurs.

44

Head

above the narrow neck portion of a bone. femur, hip bone.

45

Facet

little, flat, shallow projections
ex. vertebrae

46

Tubercle

little rounded process. tibia

47

Crest

ridge of border on a bone.
Ex.Iliac on hip bone

48

Spinous Process

sharp, slender, process, back of spine

49

Axial Skeleton consists of

Skull, Hyoid, Ossicles, Vertebral Column, Thorax.
80 bones

50

Appendicular Skeleton consists of

Shoulder Girdle, Arms, Pelvic Girdle, Legs.
126 Bones

51

The Skull

forms skeletal structure of head and face

52

Occipital condyles

an occipital bone sit on first few vertebrae

53

Mandibular Fossa

depression on bone for mandible

54

Mastoid Process

back of temporal bone, air passages connect with inner ear to keep air flowing, used for muscle attachment.

55

Ramus

verticle projections of mandible

56

Condyloid Process

fits into mandibular fossa to make TMJ temporal mandibular joint

57

Palatine

Forms rest of hard pallet, walls of nasal cavity, and part of orbit.

58

Vomer

creates and separates nasal cavity

59

Kyphosis

Thoracic curve is exaggerated. Stooped posture,head and neck pushed forward, hunchback, can be caused by rickets

60

Lordosis

Exaggerated lumbar curve. Rear end sticks out, backwards bending. occurs commonly in pregnant women.

61

Scoliosis

S or C shaped spine. Can become premanent and worse.

62

Ribs

5 true, 5 false, 2 floating

63

Sternum

Manubrium, body, and Xyphoid pricess

64

Tarsals

talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, lateral cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, medial cuneiform

65

Carpals

scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate

66

Joints are

articulations

67

Joins are

functional junctions between bones

68

Joints bind

parts of skeletal system together

69

Joints make

growth possible

70

Joints permit

parts of skeleton to change shape during childbirth

71

Joints enable

body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction