The main control center of the female reproductive system is the
Onset of puberty in both sexes is signaled by increases in levels of
Oral contraceptives for female typically contain
progestin & estrogen
Repair of the endometrium during the preovulatory phase of menstruation is due to rising levels of
The female structure that is homologous to the scrotum is the
Type of the epithelium of vaginal mucosa is
Sertoli cells produce
The immune system doesn’t normally attack spermatogenic cells because
are protected by blood-testis barrier
During spermatogenesis, which of the following undergoes a meiotic division to produce haploid cells?
first sperma tocytes (primary)
In male, LH causes
Final maturation of sperm cells occurs in the
Like spermatogonia these cells are diploid (46 chromosomes)?
The acrosome of a sperm cell contains
hyaluronidase for egg penetration.
The principal androgen is
Seminal vesicles produce
A normal mature human spermatozoa contains
The oogenesis begins in females
ALL of the following are functions of estrogens
help control fluid and electrolyte balance.
promote protein anabolism.
help regulate secretion of FSH.
promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics.
During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by
the corpus luteum.
The main function of progesterone during the menstrual cycle is to
thicken the endometrium.
ALL of the following are sympathetic responses during sexual intercourse
peristalsis in the ductus deferens.
increased blood pressure.
contraction of perineal muscles.
ejaculation of semen.
The drug Viagra enhances the effects of __________ in the penis.
The role of nitric oxide in the erection of the penis is to __________.
relax smooth muscle in penile arteries
Ovulation is triggered by a surge in the level of the hormone __________.
During the ovarian preovulatory phase, the uterus is in its __________ phase in which endometrial mass doubles under the influence of __________.
Inhibin primarily inhibits secretion of __________.
About 60% of the volume of semen is contributed by the __________.
The spermatic cord passes through an opening in the anterior abdominal wall called the __________.
In the prostate and seminal vesicles, 5 alpha-reductase converts testosterone to a more potent androgen called __________.
The blood-testis barrier is formed just internal to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules by tight junctions between __________ cells.
The testicular artery, veins, autonomic nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle together constitute the __________.
The vascular changes resulting in an erection are the result of a __________ reflex.
Inheritance of the ABO blood type is an example
Once hCG levels decrease, estrogen and progesterone are secreted mainly by
Deoxygenated fetal blood is carried to the placenta via
Which of the following has occurred by the end of the first month of development
The heart has formed and begun beating
The endometrium is digested by enzymes released from the
The portion of the endometrium that becomes the maternal portion of the placenta
At day 4 after fertilization, the solid ball of cells that has formed is called the
What percentages of sperm cells introduced into vagina normally reach the oocyte?
less than 1%
What is the next event following syngamy?
depolarization & release of calcium ions by the
Two lab tests which are commonly used in the hospital to find out the early genetic fetus disorders. Which two? Test what? What is the difference between these two tests?
Amniocentesis- 14-16 wks, genetic disorders
Chorionic villi- 8-10 wks, genetic disorders
Mucous membrane lining the uterus
The term capacitation refers to
functional changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract that allow them to fertilize the secondary oocyte.
The term syngamy refers to the
a sperm cell's penetration of the zona pellucida and entry into a secondary oocyte.
Implantation usually occurs in the
posterior wall of the body or fundus of the uterus.
The human gestation period is about
The embryonic period of development covers what time period?
the first two months following fertilization
For fertilization to occur, a sperm must penetrate
clear glycoprotein layer.
The “water” referred to when a woman's “water breaks” prior to delivery is
amniotic fluid released when the amnion ruptures.
The reason the corpus luteum is maintained in early pregnancy is to
keep levels of estrogen and progesterone high enough to maintain the endometrium.
Human chorionic gonadotropin is produced by the
trophoblast cells of the chorion.
Peak secretion of hCS occurs
late in the third trimester.
In a pregnant woman, decreased utilization of glucose and increased release of fatty acids from adipose tissue are promoted by the hormone
Early pregnancy tests are based on detection of what substance in the urine?
What event marks the beginning of the stage of expulsion in true labor?
complete cervical dilation
The observable characteristics of a person's genetic makeup are known as the
An individual whose alleles for a particular trait are the same is said to be
The two alternative forms of a gene that code for the same trait and are at the same locus on homologous chromosomes are called
A person is heterozygous for a particular trait if he/she has
one dominant allele and one recessive allele for the trait.
If two genes for a trait are expressed equally in a heterozygote, they are said to be __________.
The hormone __________ inhibits uterine contractions; the hormone __________ promotes uterine contractions.
The part of the female reproductive tract in which fertilization normally occurs is the __________.