Immune System Flashcards


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created 9 years ago by mdumansky1
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Immune System
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1

Lymphatic System structure consists of :

Lymph, lymphatic vessels, structures, and organs containing lymphatic tissues & red bone marrow

2

Functions of the lymphatics system

Drain excess interstitial fluid
Transport dietary lipids to blood stream
Carry out immune responses/ defend from microbial invasions

3

Lymphatic vessels

One way system from the tissues to the circulatory system

4

Vessels begin as:

Lymphatic Capillaries (they are closed at one end) They unite to form large lymphatic vessels

5

What's the difference between lymphatic vessels & Veins?

They resemble in structure but lymphatic vessels have thinner walls & more valves

6

lymphatic vessels pass through:

lymph nodes; encapsulated organs w/ masses & B & T Cells, and function as lymph filters

7

Lymphatic Capillaries

lie near blood capillaries
slightly large diamters

8

Lymphatic Capillaries

Have unique one way structure
composed of simple endothelial cells
permits interstitial fluid to flow in
*fluid not reabsorbed from blood*

9

Lymphatic Capillaries

Note: All extra fluid that comes out of blood into tissues if it can not be used it goes back into lymph- goes to organ of choice, to be filtered/ cleansed for T Cells/ B Cells to kill it. It is than good to go into heart & back into blood.

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Interstital Fluid

Clear Space

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Lymphatics

EZ Pass of Body

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If the lymphatics fail to return lymph to blood, fluid accumulates into the tissues, what is this called?

Edema

13

Lymphatic Capillaries drain into larger:

lymphatic vessels which in turn merge with others, eventually forming 2 collecting ducts

14

The 2 collecting ducts are called:

Thoracic Duct (Left Side)
& Right Lymphatic Duct

15

Lymphatic vessels unite to form

lymph trunks

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The principal lymph trucks are:

Lumbar (Back)
Intestinal (Stomach)
Bronchomediastinal (walls of heart, lungs, thoracic wall)
Subclavian (upper arm/limb)
Jugular- neck

17

Passes from lymph trunks into 2 main channels before

draining into venous blood:
Thoracic duct, & Right lymphatic duct

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Larger thoracic duct receives lymph from

lower extremities (abdomen, left arm, & left side of the head & neck).

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Thoracic duct begins an an enlarged area in a lymph vessel called the:

cisterna chyli (it collected all the lymph below the diaphragm)

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In the thorax, the thoracic duct enters the:

left subclavian vein

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Right lymphatic duct goes into the:

right subclavian vein

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Smaller right lymphatic duct receives lymph from

the R arm & the right side of the head & neck.

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Lymph Transport: Lymph moves through the vessels much the same way blood is transported in veins. Upper parts of the body, lymph flows by gravity:

Lymph Transport Cont'd: regions below the heart, lymph is propelled largely by skeletal muscle contractions, which is assisted by valves

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Lymph Nodes:

Small nodular organs along lymphatic vessels ( 1 inch or less)

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Lymph nodes are covered by a fibrous connective tissue called a :

Capsule

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Lymph enters the nodes through -------------- vessels & leaves through ------------- lymphatic vessels.

Enters: Afferent lymphatic
Exits: Efferent Lymphatic vessels

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Lymph Nodes: Stroma

Supporting connective tissue

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Memory B Cell- it has a memory, makes a copy of viruses

B Cells replicate next time to stop you from getting sick again

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Lymph Nodes: includes---?

Capsule, trabeculae, reticular fibers & fibroblasts

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Parenchyma- functional part (outer cortex)

Aggregates of B Cells called lymphatic modules (follicles)

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Outer Cortex is the site of

plasma cell & memory b cell formation

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Inner cortex consists of

mainly T cells

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Medulla consists of:

B cells, antibody producing plasma cells from cortex & macrophages

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Lymph nodes

occur in a single location or in clusters/clumps around the body

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Inguinal lymph nodes

in the groin area

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Axillary lymph nodes

located in the arm pits & chest areas

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Submandibular lymph nodes

located along the lower border of the mandible "tonsils"

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Deep cervical lymph nodes

located along the internal jugular veins

39

True or False: The thymus gland is larger adults than children.

False: larger in children than adults (Babies need more protection that is why they have a larger thymus gland)

40

Thymus Gland is located :

along the trachea behind the sternum in the upper thoracic cavity

41

Thymus gland is divided into:

2 lobes (internally divided into many lobules)

42

Large # of T-lymphocytes secrete...

Thymosin, a hormone which stimulates the development of T Cells .
T Lymphocytes= immunity

43

True or False: You can live without the spleen.

True

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Spleen

Largest mass of lymphatic tissue in the body

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Structure of Spleen: Stroma made of:

Capsule, trabeculae, reticular fibers, & fibroblasts

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Structure of Spleen: Parenchyma:

White pulp- lymphatic tissue (lymphocytes& macrophages)

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Structure of Spleen: B Cells & T cells carry out

immune function

48

Red Pulp

RBC's, macrophages, lymphocytes,plasma cells, granulocytes

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Where do your dying RBC's go?

Spleen

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Red Pulp

Blood gets recycled here (macrophages, eat all worn & ruptured blood cells)

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Red Pulp define:

blood filled venous sinuses and splenic (Bilroth's) cords- RBC's, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells & granulocytes

Storage of up to 1/3 of body's platelet supply

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The Tonsils

embedded in the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract
phagocytize foreign substances from the lymph

53

How many tonsils are there?

5

54

Pharyngeal tonsil

a single tonsil (posterior wall of nasopharnyx)

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If the pharyngeal tonsil is abnormally enlarged it is called:

Adenoid

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(2) Palatine tonsils

Both sides of the posterior oral cavity

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(2) Linguinal tonsils

under the tongue

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Tonsils are sometimes overloaded with microorganisms flowing through them & themselves become..

enlarged or inflamed

59

Tonsilitis

Inflammation of the palatine tonsils

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Tonsilitis is removed by (if they make breathing difficult or are chronically infected)

Tonsillectomy

61

Tonsil Stones (White picture on tonsils)

food gets stuck in dents in crups in tonsils. forms a hard puddy from reparing after sickness too.

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Peyer's Pathces

Aggregates of lymphatic tissue found in the wall of the ileum (3rd region of small intestine)

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Peyer's Patches function:

destroy bacteria in the intestines & keep their #'s down.

64

Tonsils

Pink-Blood are highly vasular, immune RBC's, WBC's

65

More vascular

more immunity you have