US History Chapter 9

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Matthew Perry

Japan had denied the rest of the world access to its ports, so Matthew Perry showered him in gifts, winning his favor; Japan had realized by doing this they were falling behind in military technology; ended up negotiating a treaty that opened Japan to trade with America


Annexation of Hawaii

A new U.S. tariff law imposed duties on Hawaiian sugar, making it more expensive than sugar produced in the U.S; Liliuokalani, who resented increasing power of white planters, takes over; she abolished the constitution that gave political power to the white minority; she was overthrown and the government was now led by Sanford B. Dole who requested annexation


Extractive Economy

Economy in a colony where the colonizing country removed raw materials and shipped them back home to benefit its own economy


Purpose of Colonization

Desire of raw materials and natural resources


Seward's Folly

The reference to William Seward's $7.2 million purchase of Alaska; ended up doubling the country's size and was rich in timber, oil, and other natural resources; key milestone on America's road to power


Social Darwinism

The belief held by some in the late nineteenth century that certain nations and races were superior to others and therefore destined to rule over them


Alfred T. Mahan

A military historian and an officer in the U.S. Navy who played a key role in transforming America into a naval power; argued that America would need to acquire foreign bases where American ships could refuel and gather fresh supplies


Military Reasons to Imperialize

To expand and protect their interests around the world


Relevance of the Closing of the Frontier in Regards to Imperialization

Frederick Jackson Turner noted the frontier had been closed by gradual settlement in the 19th century and had traditionally supplied an arena where ambitious Americans could pursue their fortunes and secure a fresh start; served as a safety valve and overseas expansion was a way to keep it open and avoid internal conflict



Political, military, and economic domination of strong nations over weaker territories


George Dewey's Attacks in Manila Bay

Defeated the Spanish navy in the Spanish-held Philippines and was claimed a hero


Rough Riders

Group of men, consisting of rugged westerners and upper class easterners who fought during the Spanish-American War


Teller Amendment

One of the resolutions to end the fighting in Cuba which stipulated that the U.S. had no intention of annexing Cuba; prevented the U.S. from taking possession of Cuba


Emilio Aguinaldo

Led the Filipino nationalists who defeated the Spanish army to fight for their freedom from Spain


Results of the Spanish-American War

Spanish forces surrendered; Treaty of Paris officially ended the war; Spain gave up control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam and sold the Philippines to the U.S.; the U.S. had an empire and a new stature in world affairs


Jose Marti

Cuban patriot who launched a war for independence from Spain; used guerrilla warfare tactics, causing Spanish General Valeriano Weyler to devise a plan to deprive the rebels of food and recruits


William Randolph Hearst

Newspaper publisher whose stories exaggerated Spanish atrocities and compared Cuban rebels to the patriots of the American Revolution



Aggressive nationalism


Jones Act

Pledged that the Philippines would ultimately gain their independence


Purpose of the Open Door Policy

American statement that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade there


Roosevelt's Nobel Peace Prize

Intervened and convinced Japan and Russia to sign a peace treaty; displayed America's growing role in world affairs



Rebellion organized by Aguinaldo after the U.S. decided to maintain possession of the Philippines


Guerilla Warfare

Form of non-traditional warfare generally involving hit-and-run attacks by small bands of fighters


William Howard Taft

Became governor of the Philippines; had ambitions for helping the islands recover from the rebellion; censored the press and placed dissidents in jail to maintain order and to win the support of the Filipino people; extended limited self-rule and ordered the construction of schools, roads, and bridges


Sphere of Influence

A region dominated and controlled by an outside power; gave Russia, Britain, France, and Germany access to Chinese ports and markets; threatened to limit American trade in China


Russo-Japanese War

A War between Japan and Russia in 1904 over the presence of Russian troops in Manchuria


The Platt Amendment

Restricted the rights of newly independent Cubans and effectively brought the island within the U.S. sphere; prevented Cuba from signing a treaty with another nation without American approval; required Cuba to lease naval stations to the U.S.; granted the U.S. the "right to intervene" to preserve order in Cuba


Reasons for U.S. Troop Support of Panamanians vs. the Colombians

The U.S. wanted to have access to the Panama Canal


"Big Stick" Diplomacy

Theodore Roosevelt's policy of creating and using, when, necessary, a strong military to achieve America's goals; flowed from his view of the U.S. as a special nation with a moral responsibility to civilize weaker nations


Platt Amendment

Restricted the rights of newly independent Cubans and effectively brought the island within the U.S. sphere; prevented Cuba from signing a treaty with another nation without American approval; required Cuba to lease naval stations to the U.S.;


U.S. Access to the Canal Zone in Panama

Before being able to build the canal, the U.S. needed consent from the Colombian government; efforts were stalled when Colombia demanded more than the U.S. was willing to provide; Panama declared its independence and granted America control over the Canal Zone


"Moral Diplomacy"

Woodrow Wilson's statement that U.S. would not use force to assert influence in the world, but would instead work to promote human rights


Foraker Act

Law establishing a civil government in Puerto Rico; authorized the President of the United States to appoint a governor and part of the Puerto Rican legislature


Roosevelt Corollary

In case of chronic wrongdoing by a Latin American nation, the U.S. would restore order and deprive other creditors of the excuse to intervene; reasserted America's policy of keeping the Western hemisphere free from European intervention


Francisco "Pancho" Villa

Leader of the rebels who crossed into New Mexico and raided the town of Columbus when American support disappeared; Wilson responded by sending General Pershing on a "punitive expedition" to Mexico