grammar notecards

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created 6 years ago by daliahgirl
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1

subject, predicate

-the person, thing, group, etc., noun
-the part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject (e.g., went home in John went home ).

2

direct object

-part of the predicate that is receiving the action of the verb or shows the result of the action

3

preposition

-words like to, with, of, by, from, between
(anything a plane can do to a cloud)

4

indirect object

tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done
common type is object of a preposition

5

subordinating conjunction

a conjunction that introduces a subordinate clause, e.g., although, because
mostly time words
join clauses with the rest of the sentence

6

coordinating conjunction

-like and, or, nor, for, but
connect the sentence

7

correlative conjunctions

like both...and, neither...nor, not only...but also, whether...or, either...or
join similar kinds of items and are always used in pairs

8

compound sentence

more than one independent clause and no subordinate clause

9

complex sentence

only one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause

10

compound-complex sentence

more than one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause

11

direct quotations

someone's exact words

12

interrogative sentence

question, sentence of inquiry

13

what titles do you put quotation marks around

titles of shorter works, or works that are part of larger works
include short stories, chapter titles, poems, songs, name of a TV show, article in a magazine or journal

14

what title do you italicize or underline if handwritten

longer works such as novels, movies, epic poems, collection of poetry, names of magazines or newspapers, musicals, long musical compositions

15

when are single quotation marks used

-set apart a quote within a quote

16

double or single quotes used for unusual words

double

17

capitalization within quotes

-capitalize first word if quote if quote is a complete sentence
-when interrupting a quote, the second part isn't capitalized unless it is another full sentence

18

participles and participial phrases

-verb form that can be used as an adjective
-phrases contains a participles and any modifiers

19

gerunds and gerund phrases

-verb ending in -ing that serves as a noun

20

infinitives and infinite phrases

-verb form composed of "to" plus the verb base

21

appositives and appositive phrases

-noun or pronoun used to identify or explain another noun

22

comma splice

joining two complete sentence with a comma:
this is bad, you do it all the time

23

syntax

the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.

24

dangling modifier

a phrase or clause that is not clearly and logically related to the word or words it modifies

25

misplaced modifier

modifiers that modify something you didn't intend them to modify:
for those of you who have children and don't know it, we have a nursery downstairs

26

faulty parallelism

repetition of a syntactic construction that don't align (they should):
susan enjoys cooking, traveling, and to buy books

27

predicate adjective

predicate tells something about the subject, like what it did or how it looks:
the boy grows older each day (older)

28

predicate noun

noun or noun phrase that is used to predicate a description or identification of the subject, a single noun or noun phrase that renames the subject of a sentence and follow a form of the verb "to be: or another linking verb:
wind turbines are an alternative source of power. for the next twenty years, we remained friends

29

antecedent

an expression (word, phrase, clause, etc.) that gives its meaning to a proform (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc.):
Susan arrived late because traffic held her up, Susan is the antecedent of her

30

relative pronoun

a pronoun (as `that' or `which' or `who') that introduces a relative clause referring to some antecedent

31

adverb

used to modify a verb, explains how action occurred:
john swung the bat slowly

32

adverbial clause

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb

33

adjectival clause

A dependent clause used as an adjective within a sentence.

34

prepositional phrase

a modifying phrase consisting of a preposition and its object.:
over the hill, behind the door, at Mary's house

35

5 main parts of a sentence

subject-noun or noun phrase
predicate-verb or verb phrase
clause-add info to sentence
phrase-group of words that cannot stand alone as a sentence, but can be used to add something to a sentence
modifier-phrases and clauses are known as modifiers

36

qualifiers

a word or phrase, esp. an adjective, used to attribute a quality to another word, esp. a noun.:
words or phrases that are added to another word to modify its meaning, either by limiting it (He was somewhat busy) or by enhancing it (The dog was very cute)

37

persuasive, expository, narrative, and descriptive writing

-to persuade the readers
-the purpose is to explain, inform, or even describe
-the purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events
-The purpose of description is to re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that which is being described

38

chronological, spatial, order of importance, and familiarity

Chronological: arrange the events in the order in which they happened (Personal Narrative)
Order of Importance: Begin with what means the most and move on to what means the least
Spatial: arrange the details in order of location
Order of familiarity: Starting with what you know the best