A&P II Practical #2 Flashcards


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1

Blood pressure

the force that blood exerts against the walls of the blood vessels

2

Arteries

blood pressure is highest in these

3

The ventricles of the heart contract & eject blood into the aorta & pulmonary arteries

blood pressure is highest when

4

Systolic blood pressure

blood pressure measured during ventricular contraction (cardiac systole)

5

Diastolic blood pressure

blood pressure measured during ventricular relaxation (cardiac diastole)

6

Veins & Arteries

have the same number of layers

7

Sphygmomanometer

consists of an inflatable bladder enclosed in a nondistensible cuff

8

stethoscope

necessary for the auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement

9

Anastomosis

arteries forming a network for multiple pathways for blood to flow

10

Circle of Willis & Coronary Circulation

examples of anastomosis

11

Superior vena cava & inferior vena cava

all of the body's systemic veins (except cardiac veins) drain where

12

endothelial tissue => connective tissue => elastic tissue

three layers of the tunica intima (deep to superficial)

13

Simple squamous epithelium; Lumen

the endothelium consists of ________ _________ __________ that forms a smooth inner lining around the ___________.

14

elastic tissue

allows for the expansion of the arteries

15

tunica media

thickest layer on the walls of large arteries

16

tunica media

made up of elastic tissue in large arteries & smooth muscle in small arteries

17

tunica adventita

made up of collagen and elastic tissue (& nerves, & small blood vessels)

18

Valves

thing that veins contain & arteries don't

19

Capillaries

the only blood vessel whose walls permit gas exchange between the blood & surrounding tissues

20

tunica media or tunica externa

capillaries contain no...

21

Arteriosclerosis

thickening & toughening of arterial walls due to loss of elasticity as aging occurs

22

Atherosclerosis

a disease that occurs when fatty deposits form along the walls of arteries

23

Aneurysm

a bulge in the weakened wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery

24

Varicose veins

sagging & swollen vessels

25

Hypertension

high blood pressure (systolic > 140mmHg ; diastolic > 90mmHg)

26

Systemic circulation

circulation to all body parts minus lungs & heart

27

Coronary circulation

brings oxygenated blood & nutrients to the heart

28

Oxygenated => deoxygenated

systemic & coronary circulations start _______ & end __________.

29

Pulmonary circulation

brings deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated

30

Deoxygenated => Oxygenated

Pulmonary circulation starts _______ & ends ____________.

31

Systemic circulation

left side of the heart associated with...

32

Pulmonary circulation

right side of the heart associated with...

33

Superior vena cava

brings blood above the heart back to the right atrium

34

Inferior vena cava

brings blood below the heart back to the right atrium

35

Infarction

heart attack due to death of tissue

36

atria ; ventricle

When the heart beats _______ contract first, followed by _______.

37

the left side of the heart has to pump blood out of the heart to the rest of the body whereas, the right side only has to pump blood to the lungs which are relatively close to the heart

Why is the left ventricle thicker than the right ventricle?

38

Interventricular septum

a thick wall that seperates the right & left ventricles

39

Murmur

when valves close abnormally or there is a structural heart defect, blood can produce a gurgling or swishing sound

40

tricuspid valve

between the right atrium & right ventricle

41

pulmonary semilunar valve

between the right ventricle & pulmonary artery

42

bicuspid valve

between left atrium and left ventricle

43

aortic semilunar valve

between the left ventricle and the aorta

44

"Lubb"

sound heard when AV valves close

45

"Dubb"

sound heard when semilunar valves close

46

Arteries

carry blood away from the heart
oxygenated blood in systemic circulation
deoxygenated blood in pulmonary circulation

47

Veins

carry blood to the heart
deoxygenated blood in systemic circulation
oxygenated blood in pulmonary circulation

48

Aorta

largest artery in the body

49

Superior & inferior vena cava

largest veins in the body

50

Low-density lipoproteins

bad or lousy cholesterol that can cause arterial plaques leading to atherosclerosis

51

High-density lipoproteins

good or heavenly cholesterol that does not cause circulatory problems

52

EKG or electrocardiography

voltmeter; reads the electrical activity of the heart to see if it is generated & conducting correctly

53

Lead

a record (tracing) of electrical activity between 2 electrodes; allow viewing of the hearts electrical activity in different planes

54

Baseline

if electrical activity is not detected, a straight line is recorded

55

Waveform

movement away from baseline in the positive (upward) or negative (downward) direction

56

PR Interval

indicates AV conduction time

57

ST segment

indicates early ventricular repolarization

58

QRS Complex

indicates ventricular depolarization (contraction of ventricles)

59

QT Interval

represents ventricular depolarization & repolarization

60

T wave

indicates ventricular repolarization

61

P wave

indicates atrial depolarization (contraction of atrium)

62

Sinus tachycardia

HR = 101-160 bpm
Rhythm = regular or irregular

63

Sinus Bradycardia

HR = 40-59 bpm
Conduction = P-R normal or slightly prolonged at slower rates
Rhythm = regular or slightly irregular

64

Ventricular Fibrillation

HR = unattainable
P wave - may be present, but obscurred by ventricular waves
QRS - not apparent
Conduction - chaotic electrical activity
Rhythm - chaotic electrical activity

65

base of the aorta

Where do the coronaries begin?

66

right atrium

where do the coronary veins dump deoxygenated blood into?

67

to carry oxygenated blood to the heart to provide it with oxygen & nutrients

what is the function of coronary vessels?

68

it receives deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus

What type of blood (deoxygenated or oxygenated) does the right atrium receive and from which 3 vessels?

69

it receives oxygenated blood from the left & right pulmonary veins

What type of blood (deoxygenated or oxygenated) does the left atrium receive and from what vessels?

70

oxygenated

the aorta transports what type of blood?

71

deoxygenated

the pulmonary trunk transports what type of blood?

72

the aorta has more elasticity because it has to be able to withstand the large amounts of blood and pressure coming from the left ventricle

which vessel (aorta or pulmonary trunk) has more elasticity & why?

73

the AV valves consist of a bicuspid & a tricuspid valve which are held to the ventricular walls by the chordae tendinae; the semilunar valves are composed of 3 cusp valves & these are opened and closed based on pressure

list 2 major differences in structure when comparing AV valves & semilunar valves

74

to reduce friction during heart activity so the heart can beat in a relatively frictionless environment

what is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial sac?

75

to enforce a one-way flow of blood through the heart chambers & prevent back flow into the atria when ventricles are contracting

what is the function of the valves found in the heart?

76

anchor the cusps of the valves to the ventricular walls

what is the role of the chordae tendineae ?

77

systematic circulation

if the mitral valve does not close properly, which circulation is affected?

78

because that would cut off the functional blood supply to that nourishes the heart

why might a thrombus in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery cause sudden death?

79

skeletal muscle has long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells with obvious striations, wheres as cardiac muscle has cells that branch, are striated with 1 nucleus & come together at intercalated discs

how would you distinguish the structure of cardiac muscle from that of skeletal muscle?

80

intercalated discs allow for electrical connections between cells & it holds myocytes together so they do not pull apart when the heart contracts.
many mitochondria provide the energy required for contraction

what are the unique anatomical features or cardiac muscle & what are their functions?

81

SA node => AV node => Bundle of His => bundle branches => purkinje fibers

list the elements of the intrinsic conducting system in order, starting at the SA node

82

AV node; because it allows the atria to contract completely, ejecting all of their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles begin to contract

what structure in the transmission sequence is the impulse temporarily delayed? Why?

83

to act as the pacemaker. the SA node provides the stimulus for the contraction since its discharge has the highest rate (under normal circumstances the SA node will set the heart rate)

even though cardiac muscle has an inherent ability to beat, the nodal system play a critical role. What is it?

84

because our heart is in a greater demand when our body is under that kind of strain. the heart must beat faster & harder in order to deliver a larger amount of blood to the organs and muscles that are being used while running

why does the heart rate increase during running?

85

ventricular fibrillation; because blood passes from the atria into the ventricles with the help of gravity only a little remaining blood is needed to be pumped, whereas the ventricles are fighting against gravity so if the pump is fibrillating the body is not getting the blood it needs = fatal

which would be more serious, atrial or ventricular fibrillation? why?

86

stroke

insufficient supply of blood to the brain region or damage to the vasculature in a particular area of the brain which causes bleeding into the nervous tissue

87

cerebral hemorrhage

occurs when a vessel bursts causing bleeding in a region of the cerebral cortex

88

embolic stroke

when small clots that formed in other parts of the body occlude cerebral arteries & cut off blood supply to the cerebral cortex

89

ischemic stroke

narrowing or blockage of vasculature that results in oxygen deprivation to a specific part of the cerebral cortex.

90

brachiocephalic artery

first to branch off the aortic arch

91

celiac artery

supplies the stomach & spleen

92

superior mesenteric artery

supplies the small intestine

93

inferior mesenteric artery

supplies large intestine

94

hepatic portal vein

superior mesenteric vein & splenic vein join to form?

95

pelvic organs

internal iliac arteries carry blood where?

96

legs

external iliac arteries carry blood where?

97

brachiocephalic vein

jugular & subclavian veins join together to form what?

98

superior vena cava

right & left brachiocephalic veins join together to form what?

99

azygos vein

comes along the vertebral column & is an alternate pathway for the blood to get from the lower part of the body to the heart

100

artery: tunica media thick, tunica externa thin, open & circular lumen
vein: tunica media thin, tunica externa thick, somewhat collapsed lumen

structural difference between arteries & veins

101

valves are present in veins because blood flowing back from the heart is often against gravity, thus the valves ensure venous return equals cardiac output by preventing back flow

why are valves present in vein but not arteries?

102

skeletal muscle pumps to "milk" blood & pressure changes that occur in the thorax during breathing

name 2 events occurring within the body that aid in venous return

103

arteries are closer to the pumping action of the heart & must be able to expand as an increased volume of blood is pumped into them during systole & recoil passively as blood flows off into circulation during diastole. the walls have to be sufficiently strong to withstand the pressure fluctuations

why are the walls of the arteries proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins?

104

it is a protective device that provides alternate pathways for blood to reach brain tissue in case of arterial occlusion or impaired blood flow in the system

what is the function of the circle of Willis?

105

the arteries in the pulmonary circulation are similar to the structure of the systemic veins (tunica media thin & tunica externa thick). this allows the pulmonary arteries to create a low pressure bed in the lungs to permit gas exchange

how do the arteries of the pulmonary circulation differ structurally from systemic arteries? what condition is indicated by this anatomical difference?

106

digestive viscera, spleen, & pancreas

what is the source of blood in the hepatic portal system?

107

to ensure that the proper sugar, fatty acid, and amino acid concentrations are in the blood

why is blood carried to the liver before it enters the systemic circulation?

108

placenta

what organ serves as a respiratory/digestive/excretory organ for the fetus?

109

carotid

which pulse point has the greatest amplitude?

110

dorsalis pedis

which pulse point has the least amplitude?

111

alternate contraction & relaxation of the myocardium and opening & closing of valves

what 2 factors promote the movement of blood through the heart?

112

alternating surges of pressure in an artery that occur with each contraction & relaxation of the left ventricle

pulse

113

radial artery

artery palpated at the wrist

114

superficial temporal artery

artery palpated at the front of the ear

115

dorsalis pedis artery

artery palpated at the dorsum of the foot

116

common carotid artery

artery palpated at the side of the neck

117

femoral artery

what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding in the thigh?

118

brachial artery

what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding in the forearm?

119

popliteal artery

what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding in the calf?

120

radial artery

what pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding in the thumb?

121

arterial bleeding would be bright red & spurting whereas, venous bleeding would be dark red & oozing

how could you tell by simple observation whether bleeding is arterial or venous?

122

sphygmomanometer

what is the name of the instrument used to compress the artery & record pressure in the ausculatory method of determining blood pressure?

123

venous pressure is much lower than arterial pressure; because the veins are further removed from the pumping action of the heart

how do venous pressures compare to arterial pressures? why?

124

decrease blood pressure

what is the effect on blood pressure: increased diameter of the arterioles

125

increased blood pressure

what is the effect on blood pressure: increased blood viscosity

126

increase blood pressure

what is the effect on blood pressure: increased cardiac output

127

decreased blood pressure

what is the effect on blood pressure: hemorrhage

128

increased blood pressure

what is the effect on blood pressure: arteriosclerosis

129

increased blood pressure

what is the effect on blood pressure: increased pulse rate

130

increased blood pressure

what is the effect on blood pressure: cold temp

131

decreased blood pressure; because it would cause your vessels to dilate (vasodilation)

what is the effect on blood pressure: heat? Why?