Chapter 4: Tissues

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1

Anatomy

study of form (structure)

2

Physiology

study of function

3

Levels of organization (6)

1. Chemical Level
2. cellular level
3. tissue level
4. organ level
5. organ system level
6. organismal level

4

Metabolism:
*types (2)

1. Anabolism
2. Catabolism

5

Anabolism

to build things up

6

Catabolism

to break things

7

Homeostasis

maintenance of an environments equilibrium when others may be affecting it

8

Pathology

study of diseases

9

pharmacology

study of drugs

10

Tissues:
*4 types

1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscular Tissue
4. Nervous Tissue

11

Epithelium
*Characteristics (6)

1. Cellularity
2. Polarity
3. Attachment
4. Avascularity
5. Innervation
6. High regeneration capacity

12

Epithelium
*Characteristics
1. Cellularity
A. composed of...
B. Cells cells are...

A. composed entirely of cells.
B. bound closely together by different types of cellular junctions

13

Epithelium
*Characteristics
2. Polarity
A. Has... (3) and explain

A. Apical surface: (free) exposed to external environment
B. Lateral Surface: having intercellular junctions
C. Basal Surface: (fixed/bottom) where attached to underlying CT

14

Epithelium
*characteristics
3. Attachment
A. where?

A. basal surface is attached to basement membrane.

15

Epithelium
*characteristics
4. Avascularity
A. meaning?
B. where do they get nutrients?

A. they lack blood vessels for nutrients
B. by diffusion from apical surface or underlying CT

16

Epithelium
*Characteristics
5. Innervation
A. meaning?

they can detect changes in the environment

17

Epithelium
*characteristics
6. High regenerative capacity
A. why?

A. because they are exposed to the environment they get damaged easily

18

Lumen

Space inside a tube

19

Excitable tissue

Can either produce or react to an action potential

20

How do you classify epithelium?

By the outer most layer

21

Epithelium
*types (9)

1. Simple squamouse Epithelium
2. simple cuboidal epithelium
3. simple columnar epithelium
4. Stratified squamous Epithelium
5. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
6. stratified cuboidal epithelium
7. stratified columnar epithelium
8. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epith.
9. Transitional Epithelium

22

Epithelium
*types
1. simple squamous Epithelium
A. Function (3)
B. location

A. I. rapid diffustion
II. filtration
III. secretion in serous membranes
B. lungs

23

Epithelium
*types
2. simple cuboidal epithelium
A. Function (2)
B. location

A. I. Absorption
II. Secretion
B. Kidney

24

Epithelium
*types
3. Simple Columnar Epithelium
A. function (3)
B. location

A. I. Absorption
II. Secretion
III. Secretion of mucin
B. digestive tract lining

25

Goblet Cells

Secret Mucin

26

Epithelium
*types
4. Stratified squamous epithelium
A. Function
B. location

A. protection of underlying tissue
B. lining in oral cavity

27

Epithelium
*types
5. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
A. Funtion
B. location

A. protection of underlying tissues
B. epidermis of skin

28

Epithelium
*types
8. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
A. Function (3)
B. location

A. I. protection
II. secretion of mucin
III. movement of substances
B. trachea

29

Epithelium
*types
9. transitional epithelium
A. function (2)
B. location

A. I. Distention
II. Relaxation
B. bladder

30

Epithelium
*Intercellular junctions (4)

1. Tight Junctions (zonula occulens)
2. Adhering Junctions (zonula adherens)
3. Desmosomes (macula adherens)
4. Gap Junctions

31

Epithelium
*Intercellular Junctions
1. Tight junctions (zonula occulens)
A. are?
B. do?

A. completely attaches each cell to its neighbor
B. makes material to move through cells instead of between them

32

Epithelium
*Intercellular Junctions
2. Adhering Junctions (zonula adherens)
A. Are?
B. For?

A.(adhesion belt) extensive zones of microfilaments extend from cytoplasm to plasma membrane
B. Supporting and strengthening

33

Epithelium
*Intercellular Junctions
3. Desmosomes (macula adherens)
A. are?
B. for?

A. button or snap between adjacent cells only at points of potential stress
B. provides resistance to mechanical stress

34

Epithelium
*Intercellular Junctions
4. Gap Junctions
A. are?
B. for?

A. formed across the intercellular gap between neighboring cells
B. passage for small molecules from one cell to another.

35
card image

...

36

Glands
*types (2)

1. Exocrine
2. Endocrine

37

Glands
*types
1. Exocrine

glandular secretions delivered to an apical or luminal surface through through a duct

38

Glands
*types
2. Endocrine

hormonal secretions that are transported by the circulation

39

Glands
*types
1. Exocrine glands
--> types (3)

A. Merocrine Gland
B. Holocrine Gland
C. Apocrine Gland

40

Glands
*types
1. Exocrine glands
--> types
A. Merocrine Gland:
I. how does it secrete?
II. Location

A. secrete secretory vessicles by means of exocytosis at apical surface of gland
B. salivary glands

41
card image

...

42

Glands
*types
1. Exocrine glands
--> types
B. Holocrine
I. how does it secrete?
II. location.

I. through the destruction of the secretory cell. lost cells replaced by division at base of gland
II. sebaceous glands in skin

43
card image

...

44

Glands
*types
1. Exocrine glands
--> types
C. Apocrine glands
I. how do they secrete?
II. location

I. when cells accumulate secretion at apical portion of cytoplasm and then decapitates.'
II. Mammary glands

45
card image

...

46

Basement membrane:
-2 layers

1. Basal lamina
2. reticular lamina

47

Connective tissue
*types (5)

1. loose connective tissue
2. dense connective tissue
3. cartilage
4. bone
5. blood

48

Connective tissue
1. loose connective tissue
*types (3)

A. Areolar CT
B. Adipose CT
C. reticular CT

49

Connective tissue
1. loose connective tissue
*types
A. areolar CT
I. structure (3)
II. function (3)
III. location (2)

I. Vascularized, ground substance is gel-like, scattered fibroblasts
II. protects tissues and organs, binds epithelia to deeper tissue, packs nerves and blood vessels
III. surrounds organs, subcutaneous layer under skin

50

Connective tissue
1. loose connective tissue
*types
B. Adipose CT
I. structure (2)
II. Function (4)
III. Location (2)

I. closely packed adipocytes, nucleus squeezed to side
II. stores energy, protects, cushions, insulates
III. covers some organs, subcutaneous layer

51

connective tissue
1. loose connective tissue
*types
C. Reticular CT
I. Structure (2)
II. function
III. location (4)

I. ground sunbstance is gel-like liquid, scattered arrangement of reticular fibers, fibroblasts and leukocytes
II. support for organs
III. lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, thymus

52

Connective Tissue
2. Dense connective tissue
*types (3)

A. dense regular CT
B. dense irregular CT
C. elastic CT

53

connective tissue
2. Dense Connective Tissue
*types
A. Dense regular CT
I. structure (3)
II. function (2)
III. location (2)

I. densly packed // collagen fibers, fibroblast aqueezed btw layers of fibers, scarce ground substance
II. attachment for muscle to bone and bone to bone, resists stress from one direction
III. tendons, ligaments

54

Connective tissue
2. Dense connective tissue
*types
B. Dense irregular CT
I. structure (4)
II. function
III. location (4)

I. collagen fibers, randomly arranged, fibroblasts in spaces w/ fibers, more ground substance than dense regular
II. withstands stress from all directions
III. Dermis, periostium, perichondrium, organ capsules

55

Connective tissue
2. Dense connective tissue
*types
C. Elastic CT
I. structure (2)
II. function
III. location (2)

I. freely branching elastic fibers, fibroblasts occupy some spaces btw fibers.
II. allows streatching of some organs
III. elastic arteries, trachea,

56

Connective Tissue
3. Cartilage
*types (3)

A. hyaline cartilage
B. fibrocartilage
C. elastic cartilage

57

Connective tissue
3. catilage
*types
A. hyaline cartilage
I. Structure (3)
II. function (3)
III. location (2)

I. glassy appearing matrix, lacunae house condrocytes, usually covered by perichondrium
II. smooth surface for movement at joints, bone growth model, supports soft tissue
III. fetal skeleton, covers articular ends of long bones

58

connective tissue
3. cartilage
*types
B. fibrocartilage
I. structure (4)
II. function (2)
III. location (3)

I. readily visible, // collagen fibers in matrix, lacunae house chondrocytes, no perichondrium
II. resists compression, absorbs shock in some joints
III. intervertebral discs, pubic sympysis, menisci of knee joints

59

connective tissue
3. cartilage
*types
C. Elastic cartilage
I. structure
II. function
III. location

I. abundant in elastic fibers, fibers form web-like mesh around lacunae, perichondrium present
II. maintains structure and shape while permitting extensive flexibility
III. external ear, eppiglottis

60

Connective tissue
4. bone
A. stucture
B. function
C. location

A. I. conpact bone: calcified matrix arranged in osteons
II. spongy bone: lacks organization of compact bone, contains microscopic spaces, arranged in meshwork pattern
B. supports, protects, storage, provides levers. spongy bone is site of hemopoiesis
C. bones

61

Connective Tissue
5. blood
A. structure
B. function
C. lovation

A. contains platelets, leukocytes, + erythrocytes, soluble protein fibers, fluid ground substance = plasma.
B. transport, protaction,
C. blood vessels and heart

62

matrix

surrounding substance within which cells or structures are contained or embedded

63

Fibers
*types (3)

1. collagen fibers
2. elastic fibers
3. reticular fibers

64

fibers
1. collagen fibers

1. long, unbranched extracellular fibers composed of the protein collagen

65

fibers
2. elastic fibers

contain protein elastin and are thinner than collagen fibers

66

fibers
3. reticular fibers

thinner than collagen fibers, contain some protein subunits that collagen has, but are combined in a different way and are coated w/ a glycoprotein

67

ground substance

various ions and molecules

68

Matrix
*components (2)

1. ground substance
2. fibers

69

Suffixes and Roots
1. -blast
2. -cyte
3. -clast
4. chondro-
5. osteo-

1. give rise to
2. cell
3. break down
4. cartilage
5. bone

70

Muscle Tissue
*types (3)

1. skeletal muscle
2. cardiac muscle
3. smooth muscle

71

Muscle tissue
1. skeletal muscle
A. structure (5)
B. function
C. location

A. striated, //, multinucleated, long and cylyndrical fibers, voluntary
B. movement of skeleton
C. attaches to bones and sometimes skin

72

muscle tissue
2. cardiac muscle
A. structure (6)
B. function
C. location

A. cells are short, branched, striated, uninucleate, intercalated discs. Involuntary
B. contraction and relaxation pump blood in heart
C. heart wall

73

muscle tissue
3. smooth muscle
A. structure (5)
B. function
C. location

A. cells are fusiform (spindle shaped), short, nonstriated, uninucleate. Involuntary
B. moves materials through internal organs
C. vessels, airways, stomach, bladder, uterus

74

Nervous tissue
A. structure (4)
B. function (4)
C. location

A. cell body, axon, dendrites, and glial cells
B. neurons: control, internal communication, and information processing storage and retreival
glial cells: support and protect neurons
C. brain, spinal cord, nerves