C.T- EXAM 1

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created 7 years ago by laurennguyen114
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First Exam for Critical Thinking
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1

Modus Ponens
What's the symbol?
Is it valid or invalid? Why or Why not?

If P,then Q
P
∴ Q

This is Valid

2

Modus Tollens
What's the symbol?
Is it valid or invalid? Why or Why not?

If P, then Q
~Q
∴ ~P

3

Hypothetical Syllogism
What's the symbol?
Is it valid or invalid? Why or Why not?

If P,then Q
If Q, then R
So,if P, then R

4

Disjunctive Syllogism
What's the symbol?
Is it valid or invalid? Why or Why not?

P v Q
~P
∴Q
Valid

5

Affirming the Consequent
What's the symbol?
Is it valid or invalid? Why or Why not?

If P, then Q
Q
∴ P
Invalid

6

Denying the Antecedent
What's the symbol?
Is it valid or invalid? Why or Why not?

If P,then Q
~ P
∴ ~ Q

Invalid

7

Tautology
Definition
Symbol
Example

A Tautology is Necessarily True. It is and empty statement, void of content

A v ~ A

Either someone in here has a cold or no one in here has a cold.

8

Contradiction
Definition
Symbol
Example

A Contradiction is Necessarily False. It is not Possible

A . ~ A

Someone in here has a cold, and no one in here has a cold.

9

Contingent
Definition
Symbol
Example

A Contingent's truth value is determined by reality/states of affairs/facts

A.

Someone in here has a cold

10

Give an example of Modus Ponens

If it rains, then the ground will be wet
It's raining
So the ground is wet

11

Give an example of Modus Tollens

If it rains, then the ground is wet
The ground isn't wet
So it's not raining

12

Give an example of Hypothetical Syllogism

If I sell my car, then I'll get $1,500
If I get $1,500 then I can go to Spain in July
So if I sell my car, then I can go to Spain in July

13

Give an example of Disjunctive Syllogism

He will either buy a Honda or Toyota
He won't buy a Honda
So he'll buy a Toyota

14

Give an example of Affirming the Consquent

If Larry's first record solo sold a million copies, he'll be rich
Larry's rich
So, his first record solo sold a million copies
(He could have won the lottery, sold a million copies of his second solo, inherited the money)

15

Give an example of Denying the Antecedent

If Larry's first record solo sold a million copies,he'll be rich.
His first record didn't sell a million copies
So, he's not rich
(Larry could have sold a million on his second record, or hit the lottery, or inherited some $$$)

16

Deductive Argument
Definition
Example

An argument may be taken as deductive if the turth of its premises is intended to guarantee the truth of its conclusion

All humans are mortal
Sally is a human
∴ Sally is mortal

17

Inductive Argument
Definition
Example

An argument may be taken as inductive if the truth of its premises is intended to make likely/probably but not guarantee the truth of its conclusion

Every lawyer that I have met has been agressive

Since you blind date tonight is a lawyer, she will probably be aggressive.

18

Name 3 possibilites for an argument to be valid?

1) All true premises and true conclusion
2)All on some false premises and true conclusion
3)All on some false premises and false conclusion

19

Give an example of a valid argument displaying this: All true premises and true conclusions

All humans are mammals
The author of this book is a human
So,the author is a mammal

20

Give an example of a valid argument displaying this: All on some false premises and true conclusion

All reptiles are mammals
The author of this book is a reptile
So, the author is a mammal

21

Give an example of a valid argument displaying this: All on some false premises and false conclusion

All frogs wear pink boots
Jimmy Carter was a frog
So Jimmy Carter wore pink boots