Classifications of Joints Flashcards


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created 10 years ago by Jessica1982
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Joint type; Articulating Bones; Functional/Structural Classifications
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anatomy and physiology 1
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1

Skull Joint

Articulating Bones = Cranial & Facial
Structural Class = Fibrous;Suture
Functional Class = Synarthrotic ; No movement

2

Temporomandibular Joint

Articulating Bones = Temporal & Mandible
Structural Class = Synovial; Hinge(Modified
w/Articular Disc)
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Gliding &
Uniaxial Rotation

3

Atlanto-Occipital Joint

Articulating Bones = Occipital & Atlas(C1)
Structural Class = Synovial; Condylar
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Biaxial Angular

4

Atlantoaxial Joint

Articulating Bones = Atlas(C1) & Axis(C2)
Structural Class = Synovial; Pivot
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Uniaxial Rotation

5

Intervertebral Joints B/T Vertebral Bodies

Articulating Bones = Adjacent Vertebral Bodies
Structural Class = Cartilaginous; Symphysis
Functional Class = Amphiarthrotic ; Slight movement

6

Intervertebral Joints B/T Articular Processes

Articulating Bones = Adjacent Articular Processes
Structural Class = Synovial; Plane
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Gliding

7

Costovertebral Joints

Articulating Bones = Vertebrae & Ribs
Structural Class = Synovial; Plane
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Gliding of Ribs

8

Sternoclavicular Joint

Articulating Bones = Sternum & Clavicle
Structural Class = Synovial;Shallow Saddle
(w/articular discs)
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Multiaxial

9

2 Types of Sternocostal Joints

Articulating Bones= Sternum&Rib#1/Sternum&Ribs#2-7
Structural Classes=Cartilaginous&Synchondrosis/Synovial&Double Plane
Functional Classes=Synarthrotic/Diarthrotic&Gliding

10

Acromioclavicular Joint

Articulating Bones = Scapula's Acromion & Clavicle
Structural Class = Synovial;Plane(w/articular disc)
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Gliding&Rotation

11

Glenohumeral Joint

Articulating Bones = Scapula & Humerus
Structural Class = Synovial; Ball & Socket
Functional Class = Diarthrotic;Muliaxial Angular
& Rotation of Humerus

12

Elbow Joint

Articulating Bones = Radius & Ulna w/ Humerus
Structural Class = Synovial; Hinge
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Uniaxial Angular

13

Wrist Joint

Articulating Bones = Radius & Proximal Carpals
Structural Class = Synovial; Condylar
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Biaxial Angular

14

Intercarpal Joints

Articulating Bones = B/T Adjacent Carpals
Structural Class = Synovial; Plane
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Gliding

15

Interphalangeal Joints

"Finger Joints"
Articulating Bones = Adjacent phalagnes
Structural Class = Synovial; Hinge
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Uniaxial Angular

16

Metacarpophalangeal Joint

"Knuckle Joint"
Articulating Bones = Metacarpal & Proximal Phalanx
Structural Class = Synovial; Condylar
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Biaxial Angular

17

Sacroiliac Joint

Articulating Bones = Sacrum & Coxal
Structural Class = Synovial; Plane
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Slight Gliding

18

Pubic Symphysis Joint

Articulating Bones = Pubic Bones
Structural Class = Cartilaginous; Symphysis
Functional Class = Amphiarthrotic; Slight Movement

19

2 Knee Joints

(1)-"Tibiofemoral Joint"
Articulating Bones=Femur&Tibia
Structural Class=Synovial;Modified Hinge(w/art.discs)
Functional Class=Diarthrotic;Biaxial Angular & Rotation
(2)-"Femoropatellar Joint"
Articulating Bones=Femur&Patella
Structural Class=Synovial;Plane
Functional Class=Diarthrotic;Gliding of Patella

20

Superior & Inferior Tibiofibular Joints

Superior
Articulating Bones=Tibia&Fibula(Proximally)
Structural Class=Synovial;Plane
Functional Class=Diarthrotic:Gliding of Fibula

Inferior
Articulating bones=Tibia&Fibula(distally)
Structural Class=Fibrous;Syndesmosis
Functional Class=Synarthrotic; Gives slightly during Dorsiflexion

21

Ankle Joint

Articulating Bones = Tibia & Fibula w/ Talus
Structural Class = Synovial; Hinge
Functional Class = Diarthrotic;Uniaxial w/plantar
& dorsiflexion of foot

22

Intertarsal Joints

Articulating Bones = B/T Adjacent Tarsals
Structural Class = Synovial; Plane
Functional Class = Diarthrotic;Gliding &
Inversion/Eversion of foot

23

Tarsometatarsal Joints

Articulating Bones = Tarsal & Metatarsal
Structural Class = Synovial; Plane
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Gliding of
Metatarsals

24

Metatarsophalangeal Joints

Articulating Bones = Metatarsal & Proximal Phalanx
Structural Class = Synovial; Condylar
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Biaxial Angular

25

Interphalangeal Joints

"Toe Joints"
Articulating Bones = B/T Adjacent Phalanges
Structural Class = Synovial; Hinge
Functional Class = Diarthrotic; Uniaxial Angular

26

How are Joints Classified?

Structurally: Based on presence of Connective tissue Fibers, Cartilage, or a Joint Cavity b/t bones; 3 Types: Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial

Functionally: Based on movement capability by joint; 3 Types: Synarthroses (No Move)
Amphiarthroses (Slight Move)
Diarthroses (Freely Move)

27

Characteristics of Cartilaginous Joints

Ends of Articulating bones connected by a cartilage plate or pad; No Joint Cavity; Majority are Amphiarthrotic (Slight Move)

28

Two Main Groups of Cartilaginous Joints

(1)Symphyses ("Growing Together")=Bones connected via a broad,flat fibrocartilage disc

(2)Synchondroses= Articulating bones united via Hyaline Cartilage

29

Characteristics of Fibrous Joints

Articulating bones joined by Fibrous Tissue; No Joint Cavity; Movement allowed depends on the uniting fibrous tissues length; Majority are Synarthrotic (No Move)

30

Two Main Groups of Fibrous Joints

(1)Sutures= The irregular edges of the 2 bones are united/interlock by short dense connective tissue fibers; Only in skull bones
C
(2)Syndesmoses= Articulating bones connected via short ligaments of dense fibrous connective tissue; Bones don't interlock

31

Characteristics of Synovial Joints

Ends of Articulating bones are separated by a Synovial Fluid Joint Cavity; All are Diarthrotic (freely Move); Majority of Body Joints are Synovial; Articular Cartilage (Hyaline) covers surface of the joint forming bones

Structural Traits: Joint's surface enclosed by a 2-layer Articular Capsule(C.T.)which creates Joint Cavity.

Capsule's Structure:
-Inner Layer=Synovial Membrane(Smooth C.T.Membrane)that secretes synovial fluid to reduce friction.
-Outer Layer=Fibrous dense irregular C.T.
-Capsule reinforced w/ligaments
-Capsule may contain Bursae (fluid filled sacs that reduce friction where tendons cross the bone).

*

32

List subcategories of Synovial Joints

*Type determined by shape of articular surface*
(1)Plane(Nonaxial): Surface is flat or slight curve; Enables Slight Glide of surfaces past one another.
(2)Hinge(Uniaxial): Cylinder Process fits into other bone's concave surface; Enables movement in 1 plane; Typically Flexion & Extension.
(3)Pivot(Uniaxial): Round surface articulates w/shallow foramen in another bone; Enables Rotation in 1 Plane.
(4)Condylar(Biaxial): Oval Condyle first into an ellipsoidal depression in another bone; Enables 2 Plane Movement; Typically Flexion/Extension & Abduction/Adduction.
(5)Saddle(Biaxial): Surfaces saddle shaped w/1 surface convex & other concave; Enables 2 Plane Movement; Typically Flexion/Extension & Abduction/Adduction.
(6)Ball&Socket(Multiaxial): Ball shaped head fits into other bones depression; Moves in many planes;
Permits Flexion/Extension, Abduction/Adduction & Rotation.

33

Types of Synovial Joint Movements

Flexion=Decreases angle & distance b/t 2 bones.
Extension=Increases angle & distance b/t 2 bones.
Abduction=Move Limb away from Medial
Adduction=Move Limb towards Medial
Circumduction=Combo of above 4 Types
Rotation=Move bone around its Longitudinal axis w/o lateral or medial displacement.
Pronation=Move palm from anterior/face up to a posterior/face down position.
Supination=Move palm from posterior to anterior.
Dorsiflexion=Ankle Joint lifts foot, moving its superior surface near shin.
Plantar Flexion=Ankle joint moves, flexing foot downward/point toes down.
Inversion=Movement turning foot sole medially.
Eversion=Movement turning foot sole laterally.