Pharm: Abx Folic Acid

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Pharmacology
Chapter 4
updated 7 years ago by jgaversa5
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1

what is the mechanism of sulfonamides

compete with PABA for dihydropterate synthetase blocking bacterial folate synthesis

2

what are sulfonamides used for

enterobacteria (e. coli, salmonella, shigella, klebsiella, group D strep) in UT

nocardia

chlamydia

3

what are the adverse effects of sulfonamides

HHCK

hypersensitivity
hemolytic anemia
crystalluria
kernicterns

4

what is kernicterns

buildup of bilirubin in CNS due to undeveloped BBB in kids

5

what are the symptoms of kernicterns

difficulty waking
high pitched cry
floppy limbs

6

what is interesting about the resistance and absorption of sulfonamides

both very low

7

should you give sulfonamides to pregnant women

no

8

what is interesting about sulfasalazine

itself is an antibiotic but also a prodrug for sulfapyrazine; splits into that sulfa and another drug with aminosalicylic (aspirin)-like properties to fight enterbacterial infection

9

what is the mechanism of trimethoprim

inhibits DHF reductase

10

what are the uses of trimethoprim

prostatitis
vaginitis
UTIs

PCP, salmonella, shigella

11

what are the adverse effects of trimethoprim

seem severe: megaloblastic anemia, granulocytopenia/thrombocytopenia, leukopenia

12

why are the trimethoprim side effects not that bad even though they seem serious

because you're on it for such a short time

13

what drug alters creatinine excretion

trimethoprim

14

what is cotrimethaxozole

trimathoprim (1 part) and sulfamethexazone (5 parts)

15

is there bacterial resistance to cotrimethoxazole

no

16

what is cotrimethoxasole used for

listeria HELPSS: hib, ecoli, legionella, proteus, shigella, salmonella, PCP

17

what are the adverse effects of cotrimethosazole

hematotoxic
untoward fever
GI
dermatologic

18

what si the mechanism of fluoroquinolones

inhibits DNA gyrase (topoiso I) and topoiso IV

19

what are the fluoroquinolones used for

anthrax
UTIs
resistant respiratory infections (especially with beta lactams)
s. pneumo, neisseria, atypical mycobacteria

20

what do the first generation fluoroquinolones fight

GNR

21

what do the second generation fluoroquinolones fight

GNR GPC, m. pneumo, chlamydia pnymo

22

what are two 2dn generation fluoroquinolones

ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin

23

what do the third generation fluoroquinolones fight

GNR GPC, m. pneumo, chlamydia pnymo

24

what do the fourth generation fluoroquinolones fight

GPC, GPB, GNR, anaerobes

25

what are the adverse effects of fluoroquinolones

increased risk of tendonitis and rupture, more commonly in older people and usually the achilles

cartilage/joint pain in kids

diarrhea, nasuea
headache, dizziness

nephrotoxicity

26

what are the bacteriocidal drugs

fluoroquin
AGs
cell wall synthesis inhibitors

27

what are some first generation fqs

nalixic acid
norfloxacin

28

what is levofloxacin given

strep pneumo and other bugs that don't respond against beta lactams (RESPIRAOTRY FQ)

29

what are some adverse effects of 2nd generation fqs

prolong QT, leading to torsade

30

what is a contraindication of 2nd gen FQs

patient on anti-arrythmics

31

what bugs do you use penicilllins and not cephalosporins for

LAME
listeria, atypicals, MRSA, enterococcus

32

what type of BM suppression does chloramphenicol give and why is this impomrtant

random people will get anemias

DOSE INDEPENDENT

33

what drug is particularly good fro ulcerative colitis

sulfasalazine

34

why is sulfasalazine good for ulcerative colitis

uses both aspriin like activity and sulfapyridzine

35

what does trimethoprim act on as opposed to sulfonamides and why is this important

DHFR (which we have) as opposed to sulfonamides on dihydropterate synthetase

36

why is the cotrimethoxazole resistance rare

because they would have to overcome resistance to both drugs

37

do you use cephalosporins or penicillins for klebsiella

cephalosporins