US History Chapter 8

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Social Gospel Program

Movement that emerged in the late nineteenth century that sought to improve society by applying Christian principles; urge the end of child labor; pushed for the federal government to limit the power of corporations and trusts


Political Machines

City officials who built corrupt organizations and used bribery and violence to influence voters to win elections


Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Reform

Led to the passing of laws to make workplaces safer; set up funds to pay workers who were hurt on the job; passed laws limiting the workday to 10 hours


Targets of Progressive Reforms

Political reform; winning women the right to vote; honest government; targeting city officials who built corrupt organizations; wanted government to "bust the trusts" and create more economic opportunities for smaller businesses; attacked harsh conditions faced by miners and factory workers; social welfare laws for children


Progressive Views

Believed that industrialization and urbanization had created troubling social and political problems; encouraged their state legislatures and the federal government to enact laws to address the issues faced by the poor; wanted to use logic and reason to make society work in a more efficient and orderly way; sought social justice; get rid of corruptive government officials; eliminate the abuses of big businesses; highly educated leaders should use modern ideas and scientific techniques to improve society


Populist Views

Wanted to get rid of corrupt government officials and make government more responsive to people's needs; sought to eliminate abuses of big businesses; consisted of mostly farmers and workers


Impacts of Muckrakers

Socially conscious journalists who dramatized the need for reform whose reports uncovered a wide range of ills afflicting America; Roosevelt believed they were too fascinated with the ugliest side of things; revealed political corruption and life of the urban poor


Direct Primary

Election in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections



Process in which citizens put a proposed new law directly in the ballot



Process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by a legislature



Process by which voters can remove elected officials from office before their terms


Upton Sinclair's The Jungle

Related the despair of immigrants working in Chicago stockyards and revealed the unsanitary conditions in the industry


Settlement House

Community center organized at the turn of the twentieth century to provide social services to the urban poor; Jane Addams became a leading figure


Florence Kelley

Helped convince the state of Illinois to ban child labor; helped form the National Child Labor Committee


Nineteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment that gave women the right to vote


Muller vs. Oregon

A 1903 Oregon law capped women's workdays at ten hours, until the Supreme Court reviewed the law when a lawyer argued that long working hours harmed women and their families; later used to justify paying women less than men for the same job


National Consumers League (NCL)

Founded by Florence Kelley; gave special labels to "goods produced under fair, safe, and healthy working conditions" and urged women to buy them and avoid product without the labels; backed laws calling for government to inspect meatpacking plants, make workplaces safer, and make payments to the unemployed


Women's Christian Temperance Movement

Promoted the practice of never drinking alcohol; led to the passage of the eighteenth amendment which outlawed the production and sale of alcohol


National Association of Colored Women

Formed by Ida B. Wells; aimed to help families strive for success and to assist those who were less fortunate; set up daycare centers to protect and educate black children while their parents went to work


Margaret Sanger

Thought that family life and women's health would improve if mothers had fewer children; opened the country's first birth-control clinic; jailed several times as a "public nuisance"; founded the American Birth Control League


Anti-Defamation League

Organization formed in 1913 to defend Jews against physical and verbal attacks and false statements


Progressive Thoughts of Americanization

Believed that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal and moral citizens; found the immigrants' use of alcohol alarming which led them to believe these practices showed their moral faults


Urban League

Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities


Results of Dawes Act of 1887

Divided reservations into plots for individuals to farm; lands not given to individual Indians could be sold to the general public


Strategies of NWP

Became the first group to march with picket signs outside the White House; some went of hunger strikes, refusing to eat until they could vote; their actions made less-radical groups look tame by comparison; helped women win the right to vote


Strategies of NAWSA

Lobbied congress to pass a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote; used the referendum process to try to pass state suffrage laws; "society plan" used to recruit wealthy, well-educated women


Pennsylvanian Coal Miners' Strike of 1902

Miners wanted a pay raise and a shorter workday; Roosevelt tried to get mine owners to listen to workers' concerns; threatened to send federal troops to take control of mines and run them with federal employees; led to the establishment of the Department of Commerce and Labor to monitor businesses engaged in interstate commerce and to keep capitalists from abusing their power


Roosevelt's Square Deal

Program of reforms to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor


Gifford Pinchot and "Rational Use"

Believed that forests should be preserved for public use in which forests would be protected so trees would have time to mature into good lumber, then be used to build houses


Woodrow Wilson's Policies

Aimed to prevent big manufacturers from unfairly charging high prices to their customers; tried to reform the banking system


Purpose of the Federal Trade Commission

Identify monopolistic business practices, false advertising, and dishonest labeling


Purpose of the Federal Reserve Act

1913 law that placed national banks under the control of a federal reserve board, which runs regional banks that hold the reserve funds from commercial banks, set interest rates, and supervises commercial banks


Wilson's "New Freedom"

Program to place government controls on corporations in order to benefit small businesses


Clayton Anti-Trust Act

1914 law that strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act