Chapter 02

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Queen Isabella & King Ferdinand (BHATIA)

Rulers of Spain during religious dispute in Europe and during the discovery of the New World. In order to increase their wealth and strength, they gave Christopher Columbus funding for his exploration of the New World.

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Christopher Columbus (BHATIA)

Explorer of the New World who encountered the Taino People whom he named Indians, thinking he was close to Asia. While he couldn't find much of what he had expected, he made groundbreaking discoveries for Spain.

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Prince Henry the Navigator (BHATIA)

Renowned Portuguese Navigators who was known for his knowledge of the world. Colombus looked to him, as did others, for help on their voyages.

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Amerigo Vespucci (BHATIA)

An Italian businessman who accompanied Alvars Cabral on a Portuguese ship that was headed for the Indian Ocean but instead landed on the Coast of Brazil.

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Ferdinand Magellan (BHATIA)

The man who circumnavigated the globe in 1519. By the time he had reached the Philippines, his crew was extremely deprived of food and water. He was killed by Philippine Tribesmen.

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Hernan Cortes (BHATIA)

The richest and most famous conquistador. With the help of the Tobasco people, he was able to communicate with several in the New World. He conquered the capital of the Mexican empire.

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Montezuma (BHATIA)

Emperor of the Mexican empire who was taken hostage by Hernan Cortes, and murdered leaving Cortes to rule his empire.

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Bartolome de las Casas


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Martin Luther (BHATIA)

Leader of the Protestant Reformation. He is well known for his ideas of how the Catholic Church should be reformed and his nailing of the Ninety Five theses on the door of a church in order to publicly express these ideas.


Black Death (BHATIA)

The plague that killed many people and caused great troubles throughout Europe.

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The Reconquista (BHATIA)

The campaign to eliminate the Muslim strongholds in Spain.

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Treaty of Tordesillas (BHATIA)

Treaty made by Spain and Portugal to divide their claims. All land east of the land belonged to Portugal and all land to the West belonged to Spain.

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Northwest Passage (BHATIA)

The passage that England had searched for that would lead to the Indies from the North Atlantic. However, John Cabot, who was sent to look for this passage reached the tip of Newfoundland convinced it was Asia.

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Columbian Exchange (BHATIA)

The exchange of goods from the Old and New World.

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Conquistadore (BHATIA)

The Spanish word for conqueror. These conquerors would come to the New World and conquer lands in the name of Spain.

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New Spain (BHATIA)

The land that Spain conquered or claimed in the New World.

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royal fifth (BHATIA)

The amount of wealth entitled to the crown of Spain from any conquest. The rest of the treasure was given to the conquerors to divide among themselves.

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Encomienda (BHATIA)

The system under which Indians worked for Spanish. This system had Indians convert to Christianity and work for their encomendero. The encomendero was supposed to be responsable for the well being of the laborers.

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Repartimiento (GRIGGS)

1549 reform by the Spanish monarchy that limited the labor an encomendero could require from his Indians to 45 days per year for each adult male.

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Creoles (ANDERSON)

Men and women born in New World to Spanish parents. They were the second class in New Spain after native Spaniards (born in Spain).

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Mestizos (ANDERSON)

Men and women born to a Spaniard and a native (usually a Spanish father and a native mother). Some lived quite well as labor overseers, artisans, etc.; some even rose to places of prominence. Most, however, were part of the lower class that was comprised of natives in coerced labor.

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Pueblo Revolt


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justification by faith (ANDERSON)

This was Martin Luther's idea, central to the Reformation, that Christians didn't need to rely on the hierarchical Catholic church for salvation. Rather, an individual could be saved through faith in God reached by study of the Bible.

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Roanoke colony (ANDERSON)

This colony was England's first attempt to settle the New World. Located on Roanoke Island, the settlement was founded in 1587. When founder John White left for supplies and returned in 1590, not a single settler of the original more than a hundred remained. All that was left was the word "Croatoan" carved into a tree. The settlers probably died of natural causes and Indian aggression.

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Sir Walter Raleigh (GRIGGS)

In 1585 he chose Roanoke Island for the first English settlement in America. Two years later he sent 100 colonists under John White to settle on the island. White went back to England for supplies but on his return to the colony found it deserted with one word on a tree the only trace left.

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voyages of Columbus (GRIGGS)

He was funded by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and set out looking for a western route to Asia. He was convinced that this was exactly what he found and that the Americas were an extension of China. His discoveries caused Europeans to think about the world differently and they now understood that across the Atlantic lay lands that were unknown to them. The voyages started an exchange of ideas and cultures that continues today. They also resulted in Spain becoming the most powerful European nation for a period of time.