Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology: Essentials of Respiratory Care: Chapter 1 -- The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System Flashcards


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created 10 years ago by respiratorytherapist
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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology (6th ed), Jardins.
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College: Second year
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1

Tracheobronchial tree

- Used to refer to the airways leading to the lungs
- Airways look like an upside down tree

2

Trachea

- 10-12 cm long
- Located midline in the neck
- Supported anteriorly by cartilage

3

Carina

Area just before the trachea divides into the right and left main-stem bronchus.

4

Right main-stem bronchus

- Branches off the trachea at a 25 degree angle
- Problem during intubation because the endotracheal tube can easily get pushed into the right main stem where it doesn't belong
- Supported by cartilage

5

Left main-stem bronchus

- Branches off the trachea at a 40-60 degree angle
- Supported by cartilage

6

Lobar bronchi

- Large air passages that direct gas to the upper, middle, and lower lobes of the lungs
- Supported by cartilage

7

Segmental bronchi

- Large air passages that further direct the gases to specific segments in each lobe of the lung
- 10 in the right lung
- 8 in the left lung
- Supported by cartilage

8

Sub-segmental bronchi

- Airways become progressively smaller
- Supported by cartilage

9

Bronchioles

- Small airways less than 1 mm in diameter
- Not supported by cartilage

10

Terminal bronchioles

- End of the conducting airways
- Canals of Lambert (pathways for collateral ventilation)
- Secondary avenue for collateral ventilation in patients
- Not supported by cartilage

11

Collateral ventilation

Alternate route.

12

Histology of the tracheobronchial tree

Consists of three layers:
1. Epithelial lining.
2. Lamina propria.
3. Cartilaginous layer.

13

Epithelial lining

- Made of pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells
- 200 cilia per cell

14

Cilia

- Hair-like structures that move in waves to remove particles
- None past the terminal bronchioles

15

Mucous layer/blanket

- Covers the epithelial lining of the tracheobronchial tree
- Goblet cells, submucosal glands, and bronchial glands produce mucous
- Consists of a gel/sol layer

16

Gel/sol layer

- Where particles are caught
- Cilia move in this less viscous layer

17

Mucocilliary transport/escalator

- Term given to cilia moving in a wavelike fashion to move particles at a rate of 2 cm per minute

18

Lamina propria

- Submucosal layer
Consists of:
1. Branches of the vagus nerve.
2. Smooth muscle fiber (when they constrict, they squeeze the airway and the patient wheezes).
3. Mast cells.

19

Mast cells

- Play an important role in the immunologic mechanism
- Release histamine and leukotrienes