Chapter 07

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John Dickinson (VEERAMANI)

John Dickinson was an American statesman who represented Pennsylvania at the 1765 Stamp Act Congress and wrote the Congress's declaration of civil rights and grievances against the King. His claim to fame was writing the "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies" which inspired colonists to be against the Townshend Acts.

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Thomas Jefferson(VEERAMANI)

Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States and one of the authors of the Declaration of Independence. He also served as vice-president, secretary of state, minister to France, congressman, governor of Virginia, founded the University of Virginia, and served as president of the American Philosophical Society

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Thomas Paine (VEERAMANI)

Thomas Paine was a famous author of pamphlets during the American Revolution. He wrote "Common Sense" (declared complete separation from Britain), "The American Crisis", "The Rights of Man", and "The Age of Reason". He lived the end of his life in the colonies, in poverty.

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Abigail Adams (VEERAMANI)

Abigail Adams was the wife of the second US president, John Adams, and the mother of the sixth president, John Quincy Adams. She was a great champion of women's rights and often reminded John to see to women's rights in their famous letters to each other.

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camp followers (VEERAMANI)

A camp follower is a civilian who follows an army during the war, usually as a vendor of different items.

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Benedict Arnold (VEERAMANI)

Before switching sides, Arnold was a famous Connecticut general in the American Revolution. After "turning his coat" he was caught with British Major John Andre in a conspiracy plot, however, while Andre was hanged as a spy, Arnold managed to escape.

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Hessians (VEERAMANI)

The Hessians were German mercenaries who fought for the British during the American Revolution.

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Redcoats (VEERAMANI)

A Redcoat was a British soldier who served during the American Revolution. They wore red coats.

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Loyalists/Tories (VEERAMANI)

Tories were Americans who, during the American Revolution, supported the British.

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Patriots (VEERAMANI)

Patriots were supporters of American independence during the American Revolution.

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Battles of Lexington & Concord (BHATIA)

The battle in which Thomas Gage planned a surprise attack on the ammunition storage at Concord close to Boston. At Lexington, The British were greeted with some of the militiamen and began hesitantly, to attack. The British continued to Concord where they were again greeted by the militia men and attacked. The British didn't succeed in finding the ammunition and were attacked once again on their return to Boston leaving 273 soldiers wounded/dead.

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Second Continental Congress (VEERAMANI)

The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the 13 colonies who met on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia. They produced the Declaration of Independence, funded armies, formed treaties, and directed wartime strategy, among other things.

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Continental Army (VEERAMANI)

The Continental Army was one of the many military units that fought during the American Revolution. The Continental Congress supported this army financially.

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General George Washington (BHATIA)

Known as the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, George Washington was the leader of the American Revolution. His accomplishments were Defeating the British at Trenton, New Jersey after crossing the Delaware on Christmas day in 1776. He is also known for surviving the winter at Valley Forge in 1777-1778 and helping the troops become stronger and gained their respect.

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Battle of Bunker Hill (VEERAMANI)

The Battle of Bunker Hill was the first major battle fought in the American Revolution (fought after Lexington and Concord). Bostonian troops assembled to prevent the British from occupying Breed's and Bunker Hill. The British eventually won, but it was a very costly win.

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Olive Branch Petition (VEERAMANI)

The Olive Branch Petition was a list of grievances against the King that was signed by the members of Continental Congress in July 1775. The King refused to read the document.

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Declaration of Independence (VEERAMANI)

Declaration of Independence was a document that "declared" the "independence" of the 13 American colonies; it dissolved the bond between America and Britain. It was approved by the Continental Congress and signed on July 4, 1776.

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Battle of Saratoga (BHATIA)

The battle in which General Burgone's (British general) forces had planned to split the colonies along the Hudson River and isolate New England. However, as they were attacked in Oriskany and at Fort Stanwix, the British were forced to surrender due to a weakening army.

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Battle of Trenton (VEERAMANI)

(happened in Trenton, NJ) This was a battle of the American Revolution in which American general Washington planned and executed a surprise attack against the Hessian and British armies, by crossing the freezing Delaware River. It was the first American victory of the war.

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Valley Forge Winter (VEERAMANI)

The Valley Forge Winter was the place where the Continental Army (under Washington) stayed from December 1777 to June 1778 during the American Revolution. Their stay in Valley Forge was marked by many hardships, such as, disease, food and water shortages, and climate extenuating circumstances.

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French Alliance (BHATIA)

The colonists' essential alliance that came about as a result of the Battle of Saratoga. Without the French, the Colonists wouldn't have won the Battle of Yorktown, or become Independent.

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"Southern Strategy" (BHATIA)

The British Strategy of trying to reclaim the southern colonies as they 'appeared' to be easier to take and strengthen the loyalist population. However, later, this strategy didn't work because the colonists in the South were willing to fight with the British.

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Battle of Yorktown (VEERAMANI)

The Battle of Yorktown the last battle of the American Revolution. After that battle, the British surrendered (on October 19, 1781). General Cornwallis was the leader of the British troops who faced a combined French and American army that had welll of 16,000 people.

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Treaty of Paris (1783)(VEERAMANI)

The Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the American Revolution (signed on September 3, 1783). When the British were defeated at the Battle of Yorktown, they capitulated, and held settlement talks with the Americans. It basically recognized America as an independent nation.