Chapter 06

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Thomas Hutchinson (VEERAMANI)

Thomas Hutchinson was a royal governor of the colony of Massachusetts. He was one of the first people to recognize that the colonists would not respond favorably to the many laws passed by the British, but to the Americans, projected a completely loyal British front.

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George Washington (VEERAMANI)

George Washington was the first president of the United States. He was a middle child who would not inherit much wealth, but proved himself by discovering cruicial French information during the Seven Years' War.

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William Pitt (VEERAMANI)

William Pitt was "virtual" prime minister of England (twice). During the Seven Years' war, he was appointed Secretary of State and under his guidance, the British won that war. Later in life, he championed American Stamp Act resistance and liberty.

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King George III ruled England during the 18th century (most notable, during the American Revolution and the preceding events). He came to power at a young age, and insisted on replacing his advisors because of trust issues.

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Pontiac was an Ottawa chief. He is known for gathering Native American forces together during an after the Seven Years' War. He led "Pontiac's Rebellion".

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Patrick Henry (VEERAMANI)

Patrick Henry was an American lawyer and orator who pronounced the famous words, "I know not what course others may take; but as for me... give me liberty or give me death!" He helped to generate the first 10 amendments to the Constitution.

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Samuel Adams (VEERAMANI)

Samuel Adams was an American lawyer who opposed British taxation and organized resistance movements towards the Stamp Act. He was a Continental Congress delegate and co-founded the Committee of Correspondence.

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Minutemen (VEERAMANI)

Before the American Revolution, the colonies used the Minutemen as a volunteer form of protection. They were ready to fight at a "minute's notice".

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Paul Revere (VEERAMANI)

Paul Revere was a "rider" for the Committee of Correspondence between the years of 1773 and 1775, and delivered important messages about British troop position between Boston and Philadephia.

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Lord Dunmore (VEERAMANI)

Lord Dunmore was the royal governor of Virginia who took gunpowder from the Williamsburg gunpowder house and put it on a ship, out of reach, at night. He also threatened to give slaves weapons and free them, if they fought for the British.

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Ohio Company (VEERAMANI)

The Ohio Company was formed in 1747 to expand the boundaries of Virginia into the Ohio River Valley. When the company started to colonize the land they assumed was theirs, the French saw this as a threat and moved to secure their territory. This eventually started the Seven Years' War.

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Covenant Chain (VEERAMANI)

The Covenant Chain was an organization of alliances that joined the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee), the British colonies, and other Native American tribes. Their treaties and negotiations included trade, settlements, and violence between the Natives and the colonists.

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Albany Plan of Union (VEERAMANI)

The Albany Plan of Union was proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinsom which advocated a unified colonial government limited to war and defense policies. The Albany delegates approved of it, but the colonies did not.

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Treaty of Paris (1763) (VEERAMANI)

The Treaty of Paris marked the end of the Seven Years' War. In the agreement, signed by Britain, Hanover, France and Spain, the French gave the British all of their land east of the Mississippi, their land in India, and four islands in the West Indies. Spain was given Florida, France was given Louisiana, Senegal, and four other West Indies islands.

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Proclamation of 1763 (VEERAMANI)

The Proclamation of 1763 forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. It was made to separate the Natives and the settlers, but it also limited trade with the Natives and private sales of Native land.

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Sugar Act of 1764 (VEERAMANI)

The Sugar Act of 1764 (also called the Revenue Act of 1764) was the British way of taxing the colonists. In this act, the duty of foreign molasses was reduced, and the penalties for not paying the duty was more strictly enforced,which encouraged the colonists to follow the law. It was not a huge money-maker.

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Stamp Act of 1765 (VEERAMANI)

The Stamp Act of 1765 was a very blatant tax put on the American colonists by the British. It stated that all legal documents must be printed on taxed, stamped paper. This created outrage in the colonies, because escaping the tax was very hard, and many colonists felt unfairly taxed without representation.

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virtual representation (VEERAMANI)

Virtual representation was the excuse Grenville used when the colonists claimed that they were being taxed without representation. He maintained that all British subjects were represented in the House of Commons (a house of Parliament).

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Virginia Resolves (VEERAMANI)

The Virginia Resolves were a set of resolutions. One of the most important resolves was the one passed after the Stamp Act.

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Sons of Liberty (VEERAMANI)

The Sons of Liberty were a group of younger American colonists who opposed the Stamp Act. They organized protests and prevented enforcement of the Stamp Act.

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Stamp Act Congress (VEERAMANI)

The Stamp Act Congress was the first time in American history that representatives from all colonies gathered together to promote a white union against a common enemy - Great Britain. It set the precedent for the Continental Congresses. It gathered in New York City between 7 October and 24 October 1765.

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Declaratory Act (VEERAMANI)

The Declaratory Act was an act passed with the repeal of the Stamp Act that stated that Parliament's power over Britain was of the same caliber of their power over the colonies.

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Townshend Duties (VEERAMANI)

The Townshend Duties were a set of four acts that enacted duties on the imports of lead, paint, glass, paper, and tea. A board of customs officers were put in place to enforce the duties. The colonists saw this as taxation without representation.


Nonconsumption Agreements (VEERAMANI)

The Nonconsumption Agreements were a series of boycotts and protests organized by American colonists in 1774 in response to import duties that were enacted by the British.


Nonimportation Agreements (VEERAMANI)

The Nonimportation Agreements were a series of import restrictions that the American colonists agreed to execute after British tax and duty policies. They cam after the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts.

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Daughters of Liberty (VEERAMANI)

The Daughters of Liberty were a group of women Americans who showed their dissatisfaction with British taxation policies by boycotting British goods. To make up for this, many of them created their own homespun fabrics and sewed their own clothing.

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Boston Massacre (VEERAMANI)

The Boston Massacre (only 5 people were killed) occurred on Mar 5, 1770, where a mob protest provoked a couple of British soldiers to fire into the crowd and kill 5 civilians. This enforced the British unpopularity in the colonies.

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Committees of Correspondence (VEERAMANI)

The Committees of Correspondence was formed by legislators of the 13 colonies to provide a way of communication between the colonies. The first committee was formed in Boston by Samuel Adams in 1772.

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Tea Act of 1773 (VEERAMANI)

The Tea Act decreased duties on tea imported to Britain (helped the East India Company) but allowed tea to be imported at full duty cost to the American colonies, directly to the retailers - eliminating the middle man.

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Coercive/Intolerable Acts (VEERAMANI)

The Intolerable Acts were put into effect by the British as a punishment for the Boston Tea Party. They included the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, the Quartering Act, the Quebec Act.

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Quebec Act (VEERAMANI)

The Quebec Act was part of the Intolerable Acts (though unrelated to the other four). It set up a government for Quebec and expanded its territory. Americans saw this as a threat because of the hostility between the French and the Americans during the Seven Years' War. It extended the borders into land that American colonists thought they had claim on.

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Boston Tea Party (VEERAMANI)

The Boston Tea Party occurred in response to the British taxes on tea, the British monopoly on tea trading, and the Tea Act. On Dec. 16, 1773, American colonists (dressed as Native Americans) dumped 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor. They were led by Samuel Adams.

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First Continental Congress (VEERAMANI)

The First Continental Congress was a convocation of delegate from 12 of the 13 colonies (Georgia was not invited) to discuss actions to be taken against the Intolerable Acts. They petitioned King George III to repay them for their miseries, which did not work. They also advised each colony to establish and train a militia.

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Continental Association (VEERAMANI)

The Continental Association was created by the Continental Congress to enforce the trade boycott with Great Britain.

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Committees of Public Safety (VEERAMANI)

The Committees of Public Safety were created in every colony at the start of the American Revolution. They met in a town meeting style and included every white male in the community. Local militias were often under the control of these groups.