Chapter 04

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Roger Williams (PENG)

English Puritan minister; educated at Cambridge; came over to Massachusetts in 1631; ideas of religious freedom, separation of church and state, peaceful coexistence (not exploitation) with the Indians, and a wholly pure church (much different from the one in England, which he deemed corrupt); founded the colony of Rhode Island when he was persecuted for his religious opinions in Massachusetts

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Henry VIII (PENG)

English king who led the English Reformation, outlawing the Catholic Church in England and established the English monarch as supreme head of the Church of England

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Elizabeth I (PENG)

English queen who reaffirmed the English Reformation and tried to position the Church of England between extremes of Catholicism and Protestantism

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James I (PENG)

English king who authorized a new Protestant translation of the Bible (King James’ Bible) but is unsympathetic to Puritan reformers (like William I)

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Charles I (PENG)

English king who continued James I’s move away from the ideas of Puritan reformers; Puritan-dominated Parliament ordered his beheading during the Puritan Revolution

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Pilgrims (PENG)

First Protestant emigrants to America (Plymouth); believed in a specific form of heresy known as separatism; traveled on Mayflower;

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William Bradford (PENG)

Governor of Plymouth colony (elected by Massachusetts Bay Company); praised Williams as a godly man (although he also recognized his oddities, like most people around him); led separatists to Holland and then to Massachusetts in search of religious freedom

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John Winthrop (PENG)

Governor of Massachusetts colony; had a church in Boston that wanted Williams as its minister, but he refused because Winthrop’s church refused to denounce the Church of England

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John Calvin/Calvinism (PENG)

Religious doctrine of which the primary tenet is that salvation is predestined by God; founded by John Calvin of Geneva during the Protestant Reformation, Calvinism required its adherents to live according to a strict religious and moral code; the Puritans who settled in colonial New England were devout Calvinists

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"visible saints" (PENG)

Puritans thought that these people, who had passed the demanded tests of conversion and church membership, were probably, though not certainly, among God’s elect (idea of predestination); these people oversaw every aspect of New England colonial life and inspired a remarkable degree of righteous conformity in Puritan communities as a result

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Anne Hutchinson (PENG)

Devout Puritan woman steeped in Scripture and absorbed by religious questions; mother of 14 and midwife amongst her neighbors; gave lectures on recent sermons to the men and women of her community; charged with heresy as an antinomian by Winthrop; excommunicated, went to Rhode Island, killed by Indians; part of the change in New England and the splintering of Puritan communities

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antinomianism (PENG)

A person who does not obey societal or religious laws; in colonial Massachusetts, Puritan authorities accused Anne Hutchinson of antinomianism because she believed that Christians could achieve salvation by faith alone (not in accordance with predestination and the Bible as the sole doctrine); they further asserted, incorrectly, that Hutchinson also held the belief that it was not necessary to follow God’s laws as set forth in the Bible

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Oliver Cromwell (PENG)

Led Puritan side to victory in the English Civil War; Parliament proclaims England a Puritan republic (1649) and declares Cromwell the nation’s “Lord Protector” (1653)

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Quakers (PENG)

Small bands of this “Society of Friends” began to arrive in Massachusetts in 1656; their beliefs were largely at odds with orthodox Puritanism and as a result, New England communities treated Quakers with ruthless severity believed in total equality among sexes and defied social hierarchy; believed in a kind and friendly God who made his love available to all; settled in Pennsylvania in great numbers and represented many different European countries (wide range of diversity)

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William Penn (PENG)

Led a Quaker colony in Pennsylvania (land granted to him by King Charles II), represented part of the middle colonies (those north of the Chesapeake and south of the New England colonies); came from a wealthy family, but was drawn into the Society of Friends and wrote many books about his faith; jailed many times for his association with Quakers (who defied many Puritan or Anglican ideals); preached religious tolerance, but used his power to enforce Quaker ideals

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James II (PENG)

English king who mounted aggressive campaign to appoint Catholics to govt posts, then fled to France when English Protestants in Parliament offered the throne to his Dutch son-in-law William; peaceful accession of William and his wife (the daughter of James II) as corulers is called the “Glorious Revolution” (1688)

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Jacob Leisler (PENG)

Emboldened colonist (in the face of the Glorious Revolution) who led uprisings against the established royal authority (per King James II, a zealous Catholic); the group of Massachusetts rebels he led seized the royal governor in 1689 and ruled the colony for more than a year; executed by King William III for treason

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Puritanism (PENG)

Ideas and religious principles held by dissenters from the Church of England, including the belief that the church needed to be purified by eliminating the elements of Catholicism from its practices; characterized by strict moral conduct

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English Reformation (PENG)

As the Protestant Reformation loomed large throughout Europe, King James VIII of England broke his ties with the Catholic Church and founded the Church of England; this accomplished his political goal of ruling the church within his own country; however, his splintered England into Catholics who wished to return to the Roman Catholic Church and Protestants who wished to see Puritanism thrive in the Church of England; disputes and monarchial preferences led to a lot of inconsistency and religious persecution in England

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Act of Supremacy (PENG)

Granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy; Royal Supremacy is specifically used to describe the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over the laws of the Church in England; allowed him to found and rule an English church separate from the Pope

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Church of England/Anglicanism (PENG)

Created by King Henry VIII in 1534 (allowed by the Acts of Supremacy) during the Protestant Reformation; gave Henry total control over the church in England (a political goal of his); generally on par with Catholicism with the exception that it is ruled by a monarch, and not the Pope

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Separatism (PENG)

Religious belief of the Pilgrims; sought to withdraw – or separate – from the Church of England, which they considered hopelessly corrupt; led by William Bradford; sought relief first in Holland, and later in Massachusetts and New England, where they gained religious freedom and control over the colonies

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Mayflower Compact (PENG)

Pledge by English Puritan settlers drawn up to provide some sort of ownership to land not granted to them by their Virginia land grants (they were in Plymouth, far north of Jamestown) and got them on their way to establishing Plymouth Colony; named after the ship that brought them to Massachusetts in the first place

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Plymouth Colony (PENG)

Established by English Puritans in Massachusetts with the help of the Mayflower Compact; the settlement struggled to survive the first year – hounded by disease and a lack of food – but with help from the Wampanoag Indians (who they coexisted peacefully with and enjoyed the first Thanksgiving with), they were able to survive past the first winter

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Royal Charter (PENG)

Permission to establish a settlement/colony granted by the sovereign (common in England); Puritans were granted a royal charter, which included the right to self-government, to establish a colony in New England in 1620; freedom of religion inspired a very Puritan-minded colony on their part

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Massachusetts Bay Company/Colony (PENG)

Group of Puritan merchants who obtained a royal charter to settle land in modern-day Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and upstate New York; granted self-government – led to a colony heavily influenced by Puritanism; led by Governor Winthrop; suffered major demographic losses through diseases and famine, but reached success with help from the Indians (with whom they were friendly)

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Predestination (PENG)

The (Calvinist) idea that individual salvation or damnation is determined by God at, or just prior to, a person’s birth; the concept of predestination invalidated the idea that salvation could be obtained through either faith or good works (Catholic method)

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General Court (PENG)

Massachusetts Bay Company’s stockholders, known as freemen, given the power to meet as a body and make the laws needed to govern the company’s affairs; freemen included all male church members (huge Puritanism influence on the government of the colony) who elected representatives to serve in the General Court, although all freemen were included in “town meetings”

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New England town meeting (PENG)

Composed of a town’s inhabitants (freemen not elected to the General Court) and freemen (those elected to the General Court); chose the selectmen and other official who administered local affairs; generally subscribed to Puritan ideals

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covenant of works/covenant of grace (PENG)

Covenant of grace: the idea that individuals could be saved only by God’s grace in choosing to be members of the elect; idea celebrated by minister John Cotton, Anne Hutchinson’s inspiration for her lectures; went against Puritan belief in the “covenant of works”
Covenant of works: the belief that a person’s behavior – one’s works – could win God’s favor and ultimately earn a person salvation; a Puritan doctrine, it was labeled “erroneous” by Cotton

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Puritan Revolution (PENG)

c. 1642, King Charles I and the Parliament (dominated by Puritans) disputed themselves into an English civil war, a.k.a. the Puritan Revolution; the Parliamentary forces, led by staunch Puritan Oliver Cromwell, were successful in executing Charles and declaring England a Puritan republic (how it stayed from 1649-1660); however, the Revolution had far-reaching consequences for those Puritans in New England

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Halfway Covenant (PENG)

Puritan compromise that allowed the unconverted children of the “visible saints” to become “halfway” members of the church and to baptize their own children even though they were not full members of the church themselves because they had not experienced full conversions; Massachusetts ministers accepted this compromise in 1662, but the compromise remained controversial throughout the 17th century

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King Philips' War (PENG)

Between colonists and Native Americas; as New Englanders encroached on Indian land, the Wampanoags struck back in 1675; Wampanoag chief was known to the colonists as King Philip; left the New England colonists with an enduring hatred of Indians, war debt, a devastated frontier, and instigated an investigation of New England colonies per Charles II revoked Puritan control over the colonies, coincided with the Glorious Revolution, and spurned a whole slew of revolts against the Dominion of New England

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Glorious Revolution (PENG)

Reasserting of Protestant influence in England and its empire, per William II, who seceded Charles II (a devout Catholic); well received in New England, where Charles II had regained control over most of the colonies and tried to instigate a more Catholic leadership; relatively bloodless; emboldened colonial uprisings against royal authorities in New England

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Dominion of New England (PENG)

Incorporated Massachusetts and north of Maryland into a designation of the king, who found the colonies deviated from English rules; highly resented by the Puritan colonists (James II wanted a Catholic influence in the colonies); sustained by King William III (although with a more Protestant focus, the colonies became more focused on wealth and property ownership)