Psychology Chapter 6 Flashcards


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1

Memory

the ability to store and retrieve information over time.

2

Three key functions of memory

Encoding
Storage
Retrieval

3

Encoding

the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory.

4

Storage

the process of maintaining information in memory over time.

5

Retrieval

the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.

6

Memories are made by

combining information we already have with new information coming in.

7

Three ways to encode

Elaborative encoding,
visual imagery encoding,
organizational encoding

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Visual Imagery encoding

the process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures.

9

Method of Ioci

A classic mnemonic technique that depends heavily on visual imagery and the use of spatial knowledge and the use of spatial knowledge to organize recall.

10

Elaborative encoding

the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.

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Visual Imagery encoding

the process of storing new information by converting it into mental picuters

12

Organizational encoding

the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items.

13

memory mechanisms that help us survive

should be passed down

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Three major kinds of memory storage

Sensory memory
Short-term memory
Long-term memory

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Sensory Memory

storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less

16

Iconic memory

a fast-decaying sore of visual information

17

Echoic memory

a fast-decaying store of auditory information

18

Short-term memory

working memory:storage that holds non-sensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute; can hold about 7 items.

19

Rehearsal

the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.

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Chunking

combining small pieces of information into larger clusters that are more easily help in short-term memory.

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Working memory

active maintenance of information in short-term memory

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Long-term memory

storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years; no known capacity.

23

The hippocampus is critical as an 'index' for

long-term memory storage

24

Anterograde amnesia

the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store.

25

Retrograde amnesia

the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation.

26

Consolidation

the process by which memories become stable in the brain.

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Reconsolidation

memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again.

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Consolidation

the process by which memories become stable in the brain.

29

Reconsolidation

memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again.

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Long-term Potentiation

a process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection making further communication easier

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NMDA receptor

a receptor site on the hippocampus that influences the flow of information between neurons by controlling the initiation of LTP

32

Retrieval cues

external information that helps bring stored information to mind

33

Encoding specificity principle

the idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the specific way in which information was initially encoded.

34

State dependent retrieval

the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval.

35

Transfer-appropriate processing

memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match.

36

Retrieval-Induced forgetting

a process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items (Frontal lobe suppresses competing information)

37

Sleep plays an active role in

memory consolidation

38

Memories strengthen the connections between

neurons, specifically in the hippocampus

39

Regions in the left frontal love show activity when people

TRY to retrieve information

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Hippocampal activation is shown during

SUCCESSFUL retrieval

41

Explicit memory

the act of consciously or intentionally retriveing past experiences.

42

Implicit memory

the influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without an effor to remember them or an awareness of te recollection.

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Priming

an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus; less cortical activation (perceptual and conceptual priming)

44

Procedural memory

the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things.

45

Semantic memory

a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world.

46

Episodic memory

the collection of past personal experiences that occured at a particular time and place.

47

Transience

forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
(memory fades more quickly at first, then slowly over time; involves a switch from specific to more gradual memories)

48

Retroactive interference

situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information azquired earlier.

49

Proactive interference

situations in which information learned arlier impairs memory for information acquired later.

50

Absentmindedness

a lapse in attention that results in memory failure

51

Prospective memory

remembering to do things in the future.

52

Blocking

a failure to retrive information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it.
(also known as tip-of-the tongue phenomenon)

53

Memory misattribution

assigning a recollection or an iea to the wrong source
(frontal lobe intimately involved)

54

Source memory

recall of when, where, and how information was acquired

55

False recognition

a feeling of failiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before
(same brain activation as true recognition)

56

Suggestibility

the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections

57

Bias

the distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences

58

Consistency bias

the tendency to reconstruct the past to fit the present

59

Change bias

the tendency to exaggerate differences between what we feel or beliee now and what we felt or believed in the past.

60

Egocentric bias

the tendency to exaggerate the change between present and past in order to make ourselves look good in retrospect

61

Persistence

the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
(often occurs after distrubing or traumatic events)

62

Flashbult memories

detailed recollections of when and whre we heardi about shocking events

63

The amygdala is involved in

emotional memory