Fit & Well
the ability of the body to perform prolonged , large muscle dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity ( is a key health related component of fitness
consists of the heart the blood vessels , and the respiratory system. it circulates blood through the body transporting oxygen nutrients and other key substances to the organs and tissues that need them.
four chamber ,fist size just below the sternum pumps deoxygenated ( oxygen poor)blood to the lungs & delivers oxygenated ( oxygen rich) blood to the rest of the body. Blood travels through two separate circulatory system. Right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs pulmonary
left side pumps blood through the rest of the body systemic circulation
The large veins through which blood is returned to the rt atrium of the heart
one of the 2 upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing to the ventricles
the rt atrium fills, it contracts and pumps blood into her heart's rt lower chamber
one of the 2 lower chambers of the heart from which blood flows through arteries to the lungs and other parts of the body.
vessels that carry blood to the heart .
vessels that carry blood away from the heart
very small blood vessels that distribute blood to parts of the body.
the deliver oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the tissues and pick up oxygen opoor waste laden blood
The lungs ,air passages and breathing muscles: supplies oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide.
the lungs consist of many branching tubes that end in tiny thin -walled air sacs called
cardiorespiratory system at Rest & During Exercise
heart beats rate 50-90 beats /min. you take about 12-20 breaths /min. a typical resting blood pressure is 120/80
the period of the heart's contraction
the period of relaxation
the force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels is created by the pumping action of the heart.
the amount of blood the heart pumps with each beat.
during exercise increases to 20 or more quarts/min. compared to about 5 quarts per min at rest.
the amount of blood pumped by the heart each min ,a function of heart rate and stroke volume.
is the sum of all the chemical processes necessary to maintain the body
the rate at which the body uses energy
A simple sugar that circulates in the blood and it can be used by cells to fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
A complex carbohydrate stored principally in the liver and skeletal muscles: the major fuel source during most forms of intense exercise. glcogen is the storage from of glucose.
ATP adenosine triphosphate
the energy source for cellular processes
Immediate explosive energy system
the system that supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of cellular stores of ATP and creatine phosphate CP.
nonoxidative( anaerobic) energy system
the system that supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of muscle stores of glucose &glycogen : also called anaerobic system or the lactic acid system because the chemical reactions take place w/out oxygen & produce lactic acid
oxidative ( aerobic)
the system that supplies energy to cells through the breakdown of glucose, glycogen, and fats: also called the aerobic system because its chemical reactions require oxygen.
a metabolic acid resulting from the metabolism of glucose &glycogen.
dependent on the presence of oxygen
occurring in the absence of oxygen
cell structures that convert the energy in food to a form the body can use.
3 classes of energy containing nutrients in food
carbohydrates, fats, proteins
maximal oxygen consumption
VO 2 max. the highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual is capable of during maximum physical effort , reflecting the body's ability to transport & use oxygen " measured in ml of oxygen uses per min per kilogram of body wt.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
several diseases of the heart & blood vessel including coronary heart disease (which can cause heart attacks), stroke, and high blood pressure.
Frequency of Training- x a wk
Intensity of Training-
Time of Training -duration 30-60
Type of Activity- cardiorespiratory endurance exercise- walking jogging, swimming, cross- country skiing , and rope skipping.
target heart rate zone
the rate of heart rates that should be reached and maintained during cardiorespiratory endurance exercise to obtain training effects.
heart rate reserve
the difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate used in one method for calculating target heart rate range.
a unit of measure that represents the body's resting metabolic rte- that is the energy requirement of the body at rest.
ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)
a system of monitoring exercise intensity by assigning a number to the subjective perception of target intensity.
enhances the performance and decreases the chance of injury. gives the body time to redirect blood to active muscles and the heart time to adapt to increased demands.5-10 mins. running in place
is important for returning the body to a non exercising state.
A cool - down helps maintain blood flow to the heart & brain and redirects blood from working muscles to other areas of the body. Stretches
alternating two or more activities to improve a single component of fitness
excessive loss of body fluid
sudden muscle spasms& pain associated w/intense exercise in hot weather
heat illness resulting from exertion in hot weather
a severe and often fatal heat illness characterized by significantly elevated core body temperature.
low body temperature due to exposure to cold conditions
freezing of body tissues characterized by pallor numbness, and loss of cold sensation.
a measure of how could it feels based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused by cold & wind : the temperature that would have the same cooling effect on a person as a given combination of temperature and wind speed.
A condition characterized by lung congestion, muscle weakness, and nervous system problems.
is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.
is the ability to hold or repeat a muscular contraction for a long time.
a single muscle cell usually classified according to strength, speed, of contraction, and energy source.
protein structures that make up muscle fibers
an increase in the size of muscle fibers,usually stimulated by muscular overload ,as occurs during strength training.
a decrease in the size of muscle fibers
an increase in the number of muscle fibers
a cell structure containing DNA and genes that direct the production of proteins: plural ,nuclei
slow- twitch muscle fibers
red muscle fibers that are fatigue resistant but have a slow contraction speed and a lower capacity for tension " usually recruited for endurance activities.
fat -twitch muscle fibers
white muscle fibers that contract rapidly and forcefully but fatigue quickly: usually recruited for actions requiring strength and power.
the ability to exert force rapidly
a motor nerve (one that initiates movement) connected to one or more muscle fibers.
the improvements in the body's ability to recruit motor units m brought about through strength training.
a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects a muscle to a bone or other body part and transmits the force exerted by the muscle.
a tough band of tissue that connects the ends of bones to other bones o supports organs in place.
tough, resilient tissue that acts as a cushion between the bones in a joint.
the principal male hormone, responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and importan in increasing muscle size.
(RM) the maximum amount of resistance that can be moved a specified number of times.
the number of times an exercise is performed during one set.
static (isometric) exercise
exercise involving a muscle contraction w/out a change in the muscle's length
dynamic (isotonic) exercise
exercise involving a muscle contraction w/ a change in the muscle's length
concentric muscle contraction
a dynamic contraction in which the muscle gets shorter as it contracts.
eccentric muscle contraction
a dynamic contraction in which the muscle lengthens as it contracts: also called a pliometric contraction.
constant resistance exercise
a type of dynamic exercise that uses a constant lod throughout a joint's full range of motion.
variable resistance exercise
a type of dynamic exercise that uses a changing load providing a maximum load at the strongest point in the affected joints; range of motion.
eccentric (pliometric) loading
loading the muscle while it is lengthening, sometimes called negatives.
rapid stretching of a muscle group that is undergoing eccentric stress ( the muscle is exerting force while it lengthens) followed by a rapid concentric contraction.
moving a load as rapidly as possible
a large iron wt w/ a connected handle: used for ballistic wt training exercises such as swings and arm snatches.
the application of force at a constant speed against an equal force.
a person who assists w/ a wt training exercise done with free weights
a group of repetitions followed by a rest period
A muscle in a state of contraction, opposed by the action of another muscle its antagonist.
a muscle that opposes the action of a contraction muscle, its agonist.
the ability of a joint to move through its normal full range of motion.
range of motion
the full motion possible in a joint.
semielastic structures, composed primarily of connective tissue, that surround major joints.
tissues of the human body that include skin ,fat, linings of internal organs and blood vessels, connective tissues tendons, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.
white fibers that provide structure and support in connective tissue flexible.
yellow fibers that connective tissue flexible.
temporary change in the length of muscles,tendons and supporting connective tissues.
long term change in the length of muscles ,tendons, and supporting connective tissues.
a nerve that sends information about the muscular and skeletal systems to the nervous system.
a technique in which a muscle is slowly and gently stretched and then held in the stretched position.
a technique in which muscles are stretched by the force generated as a body part is repeatedly bounced,swung, or jerked.
a technique in which muscles are stretched by moving joints slowly and fluidly through their range of motion in a controlled manner: also called functional stretching.
a technique i which muscles are stretched by force applied by an outside source.
a technique in which muscles are stretched by the contraction of the opposing muscles.
bony segments composing the spinal column that provide structural support for the body and protect the spinal cord.
an elastic disk located between adjoining vertebrae, consisting of a gel and water filled nucleus surrounded by fibrous rings, serves as a shock absorber for the spinal column.
the base of each other 31 pairs of spinal nerves that branch off the spinal cord through spaces between vertebrae.
the trunk muscles extending from the hips to the upper back.