Fit & Well

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Cardiorespiratory endurance

the ability of the body to perform prolonged , large muscle dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity ( is a key health related component of fitness

2

Cardiorespiratory system

consists of the heart the blood vessels , and the respiratory system. it circulates blood through the body transporting oxygen nutrients and other key substances to the organs and tissues that need them.

3

Heart

four chamber ,fist size just below the sternum pumps deoxygenated ( oxygen poor)blood to the lungs & delivers oxygenated ( oxygen rich) blood to the rest of the body. Blood travels through two separate circulatory system. Right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs pulmonary
left side pumps blood through the rest of the body systemic circulation

4

venae cave

The large veins through which blood is returned to the rt atrium of the heart

5

Atrium

one of the 2 upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing to the ventricles

6

ventricle

the rt atrium fills, it contracts and pumps blood into her heart's rt lower chamber
one of the 2 lower chambers of the heart from which blood flows through arteries to the lungs and other parts of the body.

7

veins

vessels that carry blood to the heart .

8

arteries

vessels that carry blood away from the heart

9

capillaries

very small blood vessels that distribute blood to parts of the body.
the deliver oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the tissues and pick up oxygen opoor waste laden blood

10

respiratory system

The lungs ,air passages and breathing muscles: supplies oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide.

11

alveoli

the lungs consist of many branching tubes that end in tiny thin -walled air sacs called

12

cardiorespiratory system at Rest & During Exercise

heart beats rate 50-90 beats /min. you take about 12-20 breaths /min. a typical resting blood pressure is 120/80

13

systole

the period of the heart's contraction

14

diastole

the period of relaxation

15

blood pressure

the force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels is created by the pumping action of the heart.

16

stroke volume

the amount of blood the heart pumps with each beat.

17

cardiac output

during exercise increases to 20 or more quarts/min. compared to about 5 quarts per min at rest.
the amount of blood pumped by the heart each min ,a function of heart rate and stroke volume.

18

metabolism

is the sum of all the chemical processes necessary to maintain the body

19

metabolic rate

the rate at which the body uses energy

20

glucose

A simple sugar that circulates in the blood and it can be used by cells to fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.

21

glycogen

A complex carbohydrate stored principally in the liver and skeletal muscles: the major fuel source during most forms of intense exercise. glcogen is the storage from of glucose.

22

ATP adenosine triphosphate

the energy source for cellular processes

23

Immediate explosive energy system

the system that supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of cellular stores of ATP and creatine phosphate CP.

24

nonoxidative( anaerobic) energy system

the system that supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of muscle stores of glucose &glycogen : also called anaerobic system or the lactic acid system because the chemical reactions take place w/out oxygen & produce lactic acid

25

oxidative ( aerobic)

the system that supplies energy to cells through the breakdown of glucose, glycogen, and fats: also called the aerobic system because its chemical reactions require oxygen.

26

lactic acid

a metabolic acid resulting from the metabolism of glucose &glycogen.

27

aerobic

dependent on the presence of oxygen

28

anaerobic

occurring in the absence of oxygen

29

mitochondria

cell structures that convert the energy in food to a form the body can use.

30

3 classes of energy containing nutrients in food

carbohydrates, fats, proteins

31

maximal oxygen consumption

VO 2 max. the highest rate of oxygen consumption an individual is capable of during maximum physical effort , reflecting the body's ability to transport & use oxygen " measured in ml of oxygen uses per min per kilogram of body wt.

32

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

several diseases of the heart & blood vessel including coronary heart disease (which can cause heart attacks), stroke, and high blood pressure.

33

FITT

Frequency of Training- x a wk
Intensity of Training-
Time of Training -duration 30-60
Type of Activity- cardiorespiratory endurance exercise- walking jogging, swimming, cross- country skiing , and rope skipping.

34

target heart rate zone

the rate of heart rates that should be reached and maintained during cardiorespiratory endurance exercise to obtain training effects.

35

heart rate reserve

the difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate used in one method for calculating target heart rate range.

36

MET

a unit of measure that represents the body's resting metabolic rte- that is the energy requirement of the body at rest.

37

ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)

a system of monitoring exercise intensity by assigning a number to the subjective perception of target intensity.

38

warming up

enhances the performance and decreases the chance of injury. gives the body time to redirect blood to active muscles and the heart time to adapt to increased demands.5-10 mins. running in place

39

cooling down

is important for returning the body to a non exercising state.
A cool - down helps maintain blood flow to the heart & brain and redirects blood from working muscles to other areas of the body. Stretches

40

cross- training

alternating two or more activities to improve a single component of fitness

41

dehydration

excessive loss of body fluid

42

heat cramps

sudden muscle spasms& pain associated w/intense exercise in hot weather

43

heat exhaustion

heat illness resulting from exertion in hot weather

44

heatstroke

a severe and often fatal heat illness characterized by significantly elevated core body temperature.

45

hypothermia

low body temperature due to exposure to cold conditions

46

frostbite

freezing of body tissues characterized by pallor numbness, and loss of cold sensation.

47

wind chill

a measure of how could it feels based on the rate of heat loss from exposed skin caused by cold & wind : the temperature that would have the same cooling effect on a person as a given combination of temperature and wind speed.

48

hyponatremia

A condition characterized by lung congestion, muscle weakness, and nervous system problems.

49

RICE

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation

50

Muscular strength

is the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort.

51

muscular endurance

is the ability to hold or repeat a muscular contraction for a long time.

52

muscle fiber

a single muscle cell usually classified according to strength, speed, of contraction, and energy source.

53

myofibrils

protein structures that make up muscle fibers

54

hypertrophy

an increase in the size of muscle fibers,usually stimulated by muscular overload ,as occurs during strength training.

55

atrophy

a decrease in the size of muscle fibers

56

hyperplasia

an increase in the number of muscle fibers

57

nucleus

a cell structure containing DNA and genes that direct the production of proteins: plural ,nuclei

58

slow- twitch muscle fibers

red muscle fibers that are fatigue resistant but have a slow contraction speed and a lower capacity for tension " usually recruited for endurance activities.

59

fat -twitch muscle fibers

white muscle fibers that contract rapidly and forcefully but fatigue quickly: usually recruited for actions requiring strength and power.

60

power

the ability to exert force rapidly

61

motor unit

a motor nerve (one that initiates movement) connected to one or more muscle fibers.

62

muscle learning

the improvements in the body's ability to recruit motor units m brought about through strength training.

63

tendons

a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects a muscle to a bone or other body part and transmits the force exerted by the muscle.

64

ligament

a tough band of tissue that connects the ends of bones to other bones o supports organs in place.

65

cartilage

tough, resilient tissue that acts as a cushion between the bones in a joint.

66

testosterone

the principal male hormone, responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and importan in increasing muscle size.

67

repetition maximum

(RM) the maximum amount of resistance that can be moved a specified number of times.

68

repetitions

the number of times an exercise is performed during one set.

69

static (isometric) exercise

exercise involving a muscle contraction w/out a change in the muscle's length

70

dynamic (isotonic) exercise

exercise involving a muscle contraction w/ a change in the muscle's length

71

concentric muscle contraction

a dynamic contraction in which the muscle gets shorter as it contracts.

72

eccentric muscle contraction

a dynamic contraction in which the muscle lengthens as it contracts: also called a pliometric contraction.

73

constant resistance exercise

a type of dynamic exercise that uses a constant lod throughout a joint's full range of motion.

74

variable resistance exercise

a type of dynamic exercise that uses a changing load providing a maximum load at the strongest point in the affected joints; range of motion.

75

eccentric (pliometric) loading

loading the muscle while it is lengthening, sometimes called negatives.

76

Plyometrics

rapid stretching of a muscle group that is undergoing eccentric stress ( the muscle is exerting force while it lengthens) followed by a rapid concentric contraction.

77

speed landing

moving a load as rapidly as possible

78

kettleball

a large iron wt w/ a connected handle: used for ballistic wt training exercises such as swings and arm snatches.

79

isokinetic

the application of force at a constant speed against an equal force.

80

spotter

a person who assists w/ a wt training exercise done with free weights

81

set

a group of repetitions followed by a rest period

82

agonist

A muscle in a state of contraction, opposed by the action of another muscle its antagonist.

83

antagonist

a muscle that opposes the action of a contraction muscle, its agonist.

84

flexibility

the ability of a joint to move through its normal full range of motion.

85

range of motion

the full motion possible in a joint.

86

joint capsules

semielastic structures, composed primarily of connective tissue, that surround major joints.

87

soft tissues

tissues of the human body that include skin ,fat, linings of internal organs and blood vessels, connective tissues tendons, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

88

collagen

white fibers that provide structure and support in connective tissue flexible.

89

elastin

yellow fibers that connective tissue flexible.

90

elastin elongation

temporary change in the length of muscles,tendons and supporting connective tissues.

91

plastic elongation

long term change in the length of muscles ,tendons, and supporting connective tissues.

92

proprioceptor

a nerve that sends information about the muscular and skeletal systems to the nervous system.

93

static stretching

a technique in which a muscle is slowly and gently stretched and then held in the stretched position.

94

ballistic stretching

a technique in which muscles are stretched by the force generated as a body part is repeatedly bounced,swung, or jerked.

95

dynamic stretching

a technique in which muscles are stretched by moving joints slowly and fluidly through their range of motion in a controlled manner: also called functional stretching.

96

passive stretching

a technique i which muscles are stretched by force applied by an outside source.

97

active stretching

a technique in which muscles are stretched by the contraction of the opposing muscles.

98

veterbrae

bony segments composing the spinal column that provide structural support for the body and protect the spinal cord.

99

intervertebral disk

an elastic disk located between adjoining vertebrae, consisting of a gel and water filled nucleus surrounded by fibrous rings, serves as a shock absorber for the spinal column.

100

nerve root

the base of each other 31 pairs of spinal nerves that branch off the spinal cord through spaces between vertebrae.

101

core muscle

the trunk muscles extending from the hips to the upper back.