Biology 7 Exam #2 Ch. 26, 27, 28 Flashcards


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1

What is the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species?

Phylogeny

2

The discipline of ................. classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships.

Systematics

3

Systematics use....

Fossil, Molecular, and Genetic Data.

4

What is the ordered division and naming of organisms?

Taxonomy

5

In the 18th century who published a system of taxonomy based on resemblances?

Linnaeus.

6

What two key features of Linnaeus' system remain useful today?

The two-part names for species and hierarchical classification.

7

The two-part scientific name of a species is called a ..........?

Binomial.

8

First part of name is.......? Second part of the name is.......?

Genus, Specific epithet.

9

What is unique for each species with the genus?

The Specific Epithet.

10

Who was the person that grouped together the Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species?

Linnaeus.

11

A taxonomic unit at any level of hierarchy is called a ......?

Taxon.

12

Systematists depict evolutionary relationships in branching...........?

Phylogenetic trees.

13

What recognizes only groups that include a common ancestor and all its descendants?

Phylocode.

14

What does a phylogenetic tree represent?

A hypothesis about evolutionary relationships.

15

Each .............. represents the divergence of two species.

Branch Point.

16

What are groups that share an immediate common ancestor?

Sister Taxa.

17

A ................... includes a branch to represent the last common ancestor of all taxa in the tree.

Rooted Tree.

18

What diverges early in the history of a group and originates near the common ancestor of the group?

Basal Taxon.

19

What is a branch from which more than two groups emerge?

Polytomy.

20

What show patterns of descent, not phenotypic similarity?

Phylogenetic Trees.

21

Phylogenetic trees dont indicate when.........?

Species evolved or how much change occurred in a lineage.

22

It should not be assumed that a taxon evolved from the.........?

Taxon next to it.

23

Phylogenies are inferred from..............

Morphological and molecular data.

24

To infer phylogenies, systematists gather information about ..........,.........,.......... of living organisms.

Morphologies, genes, and Biochemistry

25

Phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry are called ............?

Homologies.

26

When constructing a phylogeny, systematists need to distinguish whether a similarity is the result of homology or .....?

Analogy.

27

Homology is similarity due to .............?

Shared Ancestry.

28

Analogy is ................?

Similarity due to convergent evolution.

29

What occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar adaptions in organisms from different evolutionary lineages?

Convergent evolution.

30

Bat and bird wings are ....... as forelimbs but ....... as functional wings.

Homologous, Analogous.

31

Analogous structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently are also called ........?

Homoplasies.

32

Homology can be distinguished from analogy by ...........?

Comparing fossil evidence and the degree of complexity.

33

The more complex two similar structures are, the more likely it is that they are........?

Homologous.

34

What uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships?

Molecular systematics.

35

What groups organisms by common descent?

Cladistics.

36

What is a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants?

A Clade.

37

A valid clade is ............, signifying that it consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants.

Monophyletic.

38

What grouping consists of various species with different ancestors?

Polyphyletic.

39

What grouping consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants?

Paraphyletic.

40

What is a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon?

A shared ancestral character.

41

Characters shared by the ........... and ........ are ancestral characters that predate the divergence of both groups from a common ancestor.

Outgroup, ingroup.

42

What is a species or group off species that is closely related to the ingroup.

Outgroup.

43

An ingroup is ...........?

The various species being studied.

44

An outgroup is a group that has.......

diverged before the ingroup.

45

What compare each ingroup species with the outgroup to differentiate between shared derived and shared ancestral characteristics.

Systematists.

46

What assumes that the tree that requires the fewest evolutionary events is the most likely?

Maximum parsimony.

47

The principle of .................. states that, given certain rules about how DNA changes overtime, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events.

Maximum likelihood.

48

The best hypothesis for phylogenetic treed fit the most data:

Morphological , molecular, and fossil.

49

What allows us to predict features of an ancestor from features of its decendants?

Phylogenetic Bracketing.

50

An organism's evolutionary history is documented in its....?

Genome.

51

What are found in a single copy in the genome and are homologous between species.

Orthologous genes.

52

Orthologous genes can diverge only after what occurs?

Speciation.

53

What results from gene duplication, and are found in more than one copy in the genome?

Paralogous genes.

54

What are the five kingdoms recognized?

Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Amimalia.

55

What is the movement of genes from one genome to another?

Horizontal gene transfer

56

What occurs by exchange of transposable elements and plasmids, viral infection, and fusion of organisms?

Horizontal gene tranfer.

57

What two domains are prokaryotes divided into?

Bacteria and archaea.

58

Earth's first organisms were likely.........?

Prokaryotes.

59

Most prokaryotes are............ although some species form ...........?

Unicellular, Colonies.

60

What are the three most common shapes of a prokaryotic cell?

Speres (cocci) , rods (bacilli) , and spirals.

61

An important feature of nearly all prokaryotic cells is their.............?

Cell wall.

62

What do prokaryotic cell walls do?

Maintains cell shape, protect the cell, and prevents from bursting in a hypotonic environment.

63

Eukaryote cell walls are made of ............?

Cellulose or chitin.

64

Bacterial cell walls contain ...............?

Peptidoglycan.

65

What is a peptidoglycan?

A network of sugar polymers cross-linked by polypeptides.

66

Archaea contain polysaccharides and proteins, but lack.............?

Peptidoglycan.

67

Scientists use the ............... to classify bacteria by cell wall composition.

Gram stain.

68

What bacteria have simpler walls with a large amount of peptidoglycan?

Gram-positive.

69

What bacteria have less peptidoglycan and an outer membrane that can be toxic?

Gram-negative.

70

Many ............. target peptidoglycan and damage bacterial cell walls.

Antibiotics.

71

Gram-negative bacteria are more likely to be ................?

Antibiotic resistant.

72

A polysaccharide or protein layer called a ............ covers many prokaryotes.

Capsule.

73

Some prokaryotes have ..........., which allow them to stick to their substrate or other individuals in a colony.

Fimbriae.

74

What is longer than fimbriae and allow prokaryotes to exchange DNA?

Pili (or sex pill)

75

In a heterogeneous environment, many bacteria exhibit ..........., the ability to move toward or away from a stimulus.

Taxis.

76

What is the movement toward or away from a chemical stimulus?

Chemotaxis.

77

Most .......... propel themselves by flagella scattered about the surface or concentrate at one or both ends.

Motile Bacteria.

78

What are composed of different proteins and likely evolved independently ?

Flagella of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

79

Prokaryotic cells usually lack ...............?

Complex compartmentalization.

80

Some prokaryotes do have specialized membranes that perform..............?

Metabolic functions.

81

Metabolic function are usually in foldings of the ............?

Plasma membrane.

82

The prokaryotic genome has less DNA than the .................?

Eukaryotic genome.

83

Most of the genome consists of a................?

Circular chromosome.

84

The chromosome is not surrounded by a membrane; it is located in the .............. region.

Nucleoid.

85

Some species of bacteria also have smaller rings of DNA called.............?

Plasmids.

86

What is small, reproduce by binary fission, and have short generation times?

Prokaryotes reproduction.

87

Many prokaryotes from metabolically inactive ..........., which can remain viable in harsh condition for centuries.

Endospores.

88

Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination promote ..........

Genetic diversity in Prokaryotes.

89

Prokaryotes have considerable ............?

Genetic diversity.

90

What three factors contribute to this genetic diversity ?

Rapid reproduction, mutation, and genetic recombination.

91

Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission and offspring cells are generally ..........?

Identical.

92

High diversity from mutations allows for ...............?

Rapid evolution.

93

What is the combining of DNA from two sources which contributes diversity?

Genetic recombination.

94

Prokaryotic DNA from different individuals can be brought together by...............?

Transformation, transduction, and conjugation.

95

Movement of genes among individuals from different species is called ............?

Horizontal gene transfer.

96

What is the process where genetic material is transferred between prokaryotic cells?

Conjugation.

97

What cell attaches to a recipient by a pilus, pulls it closer, and transfers DNA?

Donor.

98

A piece if DNA called the ........ is required for the production of pili.

F factor.

99

Cells contain the .............. function as DNA donors during conjugation.

F plasmid.

100

Cells without the.............. as DNA recipients during conjugation.

F factor function.

101

The F factor is transferable during ................?

Conjugation.

102

What carry genes for antibiotic resistance?

R plasmids.

103

Through ........... the fraction of bacteria with genes for resistance increases in a population to antibiotics.

Natural Selection.

104

Genetic recombination, the combing of DNA from two sources, contributes to............?

Diversity.

105

Prokaryotic DNA from different individuals can be brought together by ....................?

Transformation, transduction, and cojugation.

106

Movement of genes among individuals from different species is called ..............?

Horizontal gene transfer.

107

Prokaryotes can be categorized by how they obtain ................?

Energy and Carbon.

108

What obtain energy from light?

Phototrophs.

109

What obtain energy from chemicals?

Chemotrophs.

110

What require CO2 as a carbon source?

Autotrophs.

111

What require an organic nutrient to make organic compounds?

Heterotrophs.

112

Energy and carbon sources are combined to give what four major modes of nutrition?

Photoautotrophy, Chemoautotrophy, Photoheterotrophy, and Chemoheterotrophy.

113

What require O2 for cellular respiration?

Obligate aerobes.

114

What are poisoned by O2, and use fermentation or anaerobic respiration?

Obligate anaerobes.

115

What can survive with or without O2?

Facultative anaerobes.

116

What is essential for the production of amino acids and nucleic acids?

Nitrogen.

117

In .................. some prokaryotes convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.

Nitrogen fixation.

118

In the cyanobacterium Anabaena, photosysnthetic cells and nitrogen-fixing cells called ............ exchange metabolic products.

Heterocysts.

119

In some prokaryotic species, metabolic cooperation occurs in surface-coating colonies called ...........?

Biofilms.

120

What led to the splitting of prokaryotes into bacteria and archaea?

Molecular Systematics.

121

Molecular systematics comtinue to work on the ............?

Phylogeny of prokaryotes.

122

The use of ..........has allowed for more rapid sequencing or prokaryote genomes.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

123

Some archaea live in extreme environments and are called ...........?

Extremophiles.

124

What lives in highly saline environments?

Extreme holophiles.

125

What thrive in very hot environments?

Extreme thermophiles.

126

What live in swamps and marshes and produce methane as a waste product?

Methanogens.

127

What are strict anaerobes and are poisoned by O2?

Methanogens.

128

What include the vast majority of prokaryotes of which most people are aware?

Bacteria.

129

What gram-negative bacteria include photoautotrophs, chemoautotrphs, and heterotrphs.

Porteobacteria.

130

What forms root nodules in legumes and fixes atmospheric N2?

Rizobium.

131

What produces tumors in plants and is used in genetic engineering?

Agrobacterium.

132

What are the four subgroups?

Beta Proteobacteria, Gamma Proteobacteria, Delta Proteobacteria, Epsilon Proteobacteria.

133

What bacteria are parasites that live within animal cells?

Chlamydias.

134

What causes blindness and nongonococcal urethritis by sexual transmission?

Chlamydia trachomatic.

135

What bacteria are helical heterotrophs which causes syphillis ?

Spirochetes.

136

What are photoautotrophs that generate O2?

Cyanobacteria.

137

Plant chloroplasts likely evolved from cyanobacteria by the process of ...........?

Endosymbiosis.

138

Gram-positive bacteria include .....?

Actinomycetes (which decompose soil), bacillus anthracis (the cause of anthrax, Clostridium botulinum (the cause of botulism, some staphylococcus and streptococcus (which can be pathogenic) and mycoplasms (smallest known cells)

139

If........... were to disappear the prospects for any other life surviving would be dim.

Prokaryotes.

140

Chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes function as........., breaking down dead organisms and waste products.

Decomposers.

141

Prokaryotes can sometimes increase the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for ............?

Plant growth.

142

Prokaryotes can also "immobilize" or ...........?

Decrease the availability of nutrients.

143

What is an ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact: a larger....... and smaller....... symbiont.

Symbiosis, host, symbiont.

144

In................, both symbiotic organisms benefit.

Mutualism.

145

In ............, one organism benefits while neither harming nor helping the other in any significant way.

Commensalism.

146

In ........., an organism called a .........harms but doesnt kill its host.

Parasitism, parasite

147

Parasites that cause disease are called ............

Pathogens.

148

Some prokaryotes are human ......., but other have ......... with humans.

Pathogens, positive interactions.

149

what are home to about 500-1000 species of bacteria?

Human intestines.

150

Pathogenic prokaryotes typically cause disease by releasing .............?

Exotoxins or endotoxins.

151

What are secreted and cause disease even if the prokaryotes that produce them are not present?

Exotoxins.

152

What are released only when bacteria die and their cell wall break down?

Endotoxins.

153

Prokaryotes are the principle agents in .........., the use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment.

Bioremediation.

154

What is the informal name of the groups of mostly unicellular eukaryotes.

Protists.

155

What are eukaryotes?

Protists.

156

What have organelles and are more complex than prokaryotic cells?

Eukaryotic cells.

157

Single celled protists can be very complex because.......

all biological functions are carried out by organelles in each individual cells.

158

Protists include ...........?

photoautotrophs, heterotrophs, and mixotrophs.

159

What contains chloroplasts?

Photoautotrophs

160

What absorb organic molecules or ingest larger food particles?

heterotrophs.

161

What combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition?

mixotrophs

162

What is the process in which a unicellular organism engulfs another cell, which becomes an endosymbiont and then organelle in the host cell?

Endosymbiosis.

163

What evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote?

Mitochondria.

164

What evolved by endosymbiosis of a photosynthetic cyanobacterium?

Plastids.

165

The clade ....... is characterized by its cytoskeleton?

Excavata.

166

What two groups lack plastids, have modified mitochondria, and most live in anaerobic environments?

Diplomonads and Parabasalids

167

Diplomonads have modified mitochondria called.......

mitosomes.

168

what derive energy from anaerobic biochemical pathways?

diplomonads

169

What have two equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella?

Diplomonads

170

What are often parasites?

Diplomonads

171

Parabasalids have reduced mitochondria called ....... that generate some energy .........

Hydrogenosomes, anaerobically

172

What include trichomonas vaginalis?

Parabasalids.

173

What is a diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic, autotrophs and parasites?

Euglenozoans.

174

What clade is a spiral or crystalline rod of unknown function inside their flagella?

Euglenozoans

175

What clade includes the kinetoplastids and euglenoids?

Euglenozoans

176

What have a single mitochondrion with an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast?

Kinetoplastids.

177

What include free living consumers of prokaryotes in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems ?

Kinetoplastids.

178

What group includes Trypanosoma, which causes sleeping sickness in humans?

Kinetoplastids.

179

What have one or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell?

Euglenids.

180

Some date suggest that the clade......... is monophyletic.

Chromalveolata.

181

What clade is controversial and includes the alveolates and the stramenopiles?

Chroalveolates

182

Members of the clade ........ have membrane-bounded sacs just under the plasma membrane.

Alveolata

183

The alveolates include:

Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates.

184

What have two flagella and each cell is reinforced by cellulose plates?

Dinoflagellates

185

What are abundant components of both marine and freshwater phytoplankton?

Dinoflagellates

186

What are a diverse group of aquatic phototrophs, mixotrophs, and heterotrophs?

Dinoflagellates

187

What are parasites of animals and some cause serious human disease?

apicomplexans

188

What spread through their host as infectious cells called sporozoites?

apicomplexans

189

What contains a complex of organelles specialized for penetrating host cells and tissues?

apicomplexans

190

What mostly has sexual and asexual stages that require two or more different host species for completion ?

apicomplexans

191

The apicomplexan .......... is the parasite that causes malaria

Plasmodium

192

What is a large varied group of protists and are named for their use of cilia to move and feel?

Ciliates

193

What has a large micronuclei and a small micronuclei?

Ciliates

194

what results from conjugation in which two individuals exchange haploid micronuclei?

Genetic variation

195

What is a sexual process and is separate from reproduction, which generally occurs by binary fission?

Conjugation

196

The clade.......... includes important phototrophs as well as several clades of heterotrophs

Stramenopiles.

197

Most ........ have a "hairy" flagellum paired with a "smooth" flagellum

Stramenopiles.

198

what includes diatoms, golden algae, brown algae and oomycetes?

Stramenopiles.

199

What are unicellular algae with a unique two-part, glass like wall of hydrated sulica?

Diatoms.

200

What usually reproduce asexually and occasionally sexually ?

Diatoms.

201

What is a major component of phytoplankton and are highly diverse?

Diatoms.

202

The cells of ........... are typically briflagellated with both flagella near one en.

golden algae

203

All golden algae are............and some are...........?

photosynthetic, mixotrophs

204

What are the largest and most complex algae?

Brown algae

205

What algae are multicellular and most are marine?

Brown algae

206

The algae body is plantlike but lacks true roots, stems, and leaves and called........?

thallus

207

the rootlike ............anchors the stemlike.............,which in turn supports the leaflike .......

holdfast,stipe. blades.

208

What is one of the most complex like cycle and the alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms?

alternation of generations

209

what generations are structurally different, while............. generations look similar,

heteromorphic, isomorphic

210

What include water molds, white rusts and downy mildews?

oomycetes

211

most ........ are decomposers or parasites

oomycetes

212

what have filaments that facilitate nutrient uptake?

oomycetes

213

DNA evidence supports ............. as a monophyletic clade

rhizaria

214

what move and feed by ............; some but not all belong to the clade Rhizaria

Amoebas, pseudopodia

215

rhizarians include ................, forams, and cercozoans

radiolorians

216

the pseudopodia of ,,,,,,,,,,,,radiate from the central body.

radiolorians

217

........ are names for porous, generally multichambered shells, called........?

Foraminiferans (forams), tests

218

Many............. have endosymbiotic algae

forams

219

...........include most amoeboid and flagellated protists with threadlike pseudopodia.

Cercozoans

220

What are commonly in marine, freshwater and soil ecosystems?

Cercozoans

221

What is the supergroups that includes red algae, green algae, and land parts?

Archaeplastida

222

What are reddish in color die to an accessory pigment called phycoerythrin, which masks the green of chlorophyll?

Red algae

223

Red algae are usually ............

Multicellular

224

Green algae are a ............. group

Paraphyletic

225

The main two paraphyletic groups are ..............?

chlorophytes and charaphyceans

226

Larger size and greater complexity evolved in chloroplasts by.......

the formation of colonies from individual cells, formation of true multicellular bodies by cell division and differentiation, and the repeated division of nuclei with no cytoplasmic division.

227

The supergroup ............. includes animals, fungi, and some protists.

unikonta

228

Unikonta includes two clades which are ,,,,,,

The amoebozoans and the opisthokonts

229

Slime molds are in the clade.........

Amoebozoa

230

Many species of .............. are brightly pigmented usually yellow or orange

plasmodial slime molds

231

What molds from multicellular aggregates in which cells are separated by their membranes?

Cellular slime molds

232

What are common unicellular amoebozoans in soil as well as freshwater and marine environments?

Gymnamoebus

233

Most ............ are heterotrophic and actively seek and consume bacteria and other protists.

Gymnamoebus

234

What are parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates ?

Entamoebas

235

What include animals, fungi, and several groups of protists?

Opisthokonts

236

What are found in diverse aquatic environments and often play the role of symbiont or producer?

Protists

237

Many protists are important ......... that obtain energy from the sun

Producers

238

In aquatic environments, .................... are the main producers

Photosynthetic protists and prokaryotes