US History Chapter 7

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Jim Crow Laws

Segregation laws enacted in the South after reconstruction; some white southerners opposed the laws saying that in time all aspects of life would become segregated and would impose an undue burden on society


Literacy Tests

Voters were required to pass these tests; African Americans had been treated unfairly economically and denied an education, disqualifying many of them as voters


Grandfather Clause

Allowed a person to vote as long as his ancestors had voted prior to 1866; allowed poor and illiterate whites but not blacks to vote


Poll Taxes

Required voters to pay a tax to vote


Fifteenth Amendment

Prohibited state governments from denying someone the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude


Plessy v. Ferguson

The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Jim Crow Laws by arguing that as long as states maintained "separate but equal" facilities, they didn't violate the 14th Amendment


Booker T. Washington

Most famous black leader during the 19th century; argued that African Americans needed to accommodate themselves in segregation by not focusing their energies on seeking to overturn Jim Crow; called for them to build up their economic resources and establish reputations as hardworking citizens


W.E.B. DuBois

Criticized Washington's willingness to accommodate southern whites; argued that blacks should demand full and immediate equality and not limit themselves to vocational education; felt that the right to vote was not a privilege blacks needed to earn


Ida B. Wells

Worked as a school teacher and became active in the African Methodist Episcopal Church; wrote numerous articles in the newspaper, Free speech, about the mistreatment of blacks; helped organize women's clubs to fight for African American rights


Yick Wo v. Hopkins

The U.S. Supreme Court sided with a Chinese immigrant who challenged a California law that banned him from operating a laundry; the court ruled that individuals of Chinese descent, born in the U.S., could not be stripped of their citizenship


Las Gorras Blancas

Targeted the property of large ranch owners by cutting holes in barbed-wire fences and burning houses


Susan B. Anthony

Formed the National Woman Suffrage Association to fight for a constitutional amendment that would grant women the right to vote; voted in an election causing her to be tried and convicted


Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

Led by Frances Willard; the ban on the sale of liquor was her primary goal but she also supported women's suffrage; argued that women needed the vote to prohibit the sale of alcohol; also promoted public health and welfare reform


De Facto Segregation

Actual segregation; restrictions on where African Americans were allowed to live and work


Chinese Exclusion Act

Prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country


Rutherford B. Hayes

President during the Gilded Age who owed his election in 1876 to a secret deal; worked for civil service reform; the Republican party did not support his reform efforts


Civil Service

System that includes federal jobs in the executive branch; in a reformed system, most government workers would get their jobs due to their expertise and maintain them regardless of which political party won the election


James Garfield

President during the Gilded Age who was assassinated


Spoils System

Politicians awarded government jobs to loyal party workers with little regard for their qualifications


Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)

Established a Civil Service Commission which wrote a civil service exam; covered only a small percentage of federal employees but reduced the power of the spoils system


Gold Standard

Policy of designating monetary units in terms of their value in gold; gold was the basis of the nation's currency



Paper money issued by the federal government; eventually got rid of them since they had contributed to a rise in prices (inflation) during the war


Tariff Issues

Divided the Federalists and Jeffersonians and the Democrats and the Whigs; Republicans favored a high tariff, arguing it would allow American industries to grow and promote jobs in manufacturing; Democrats countered that high tariffs increased the cost of goods to consumers and made it harder for American farmers to sell their goods abroad


Coinage Act of 1873

Reversed the government policy of making both silver and gold coins; bankers feared considering silver as money would undermine the economy; farmers favored coining silver to create inflation in hopes it would increase their income


Oliver H. Kelley

Created the organization known as the Grange in 1867; farmer, businessman, journalist, and government clerk


Populist Party Platform

Warned about the dangers of political corruption and an unresponsive government; to fight low prices they called for the coinage of silver and to combat high prices they demanded government ownership of the railroads


William Jennings Bryan

Addressed the national Democratic convention on the subject of the gold standard and attacked Grover Cleveland and others who opposed coining silver



Goals were to provide education on new farming techniques and call for the regulation of railroad and grain elevator rates


Free Silver

The coinage of silver as well as gold


William McKinley

Republican candidate who ran against Bryan and accumulated 30 times the amount Bryan had