Place the structures below in the proper sequence that the glomerular filtrate would pass through them.
1. Loop of nephron (Loop of Henle)
2. Distal convoluted tubule
3. Proximal convoluted tubule
4. Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
4, 3, 1, 2, 5
The kidneys usually receive
ONE-FOURTH (25%) OF THE CARDIAC OUTPUT
Which of the following structures would normally contain red blood cells ?
Loop of nephron
Proximal convoluted tubule
All of the above
The cells of the distal convoluted tubule which monitor changes in urine volume and osmolarity are called the
MACULA DENSA CELLS
Which gland sits atop each kidney ?
The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because
IT STABILIZES THE POSITION OF THE KIDNEYS BY HOLDING THEM IN THEIR NORMAL POSITION
The function and structural unit of the kidneys is
The filtration membrane includes all but
The uptake of substances from the kidney tubules back to the blood is known as
Water leaves the nephron by
When ADH levels in the plasma are low, the collecting tubules are
ONLY SLIGHTLY PERMEABLE TO WATER
Which of the following is not true ?
The kidneys can maintain a fairly constant filtration pressure if there are systemic pressure fluctuations.
Arterioles lead to and from the glomerulus.
Blood in the kidneys goes through 2 capillary beds.
All of the above are true.
ALL OF THE ABOVE ARE TRUE
The term that is used to indicate how well kidneys are able to remove a substance from the blood is
The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determines the amount of glomerular filtrate formed per minute. This rate is influenced, either directly or indirectly, by
Cardiac output (CO)
Blood pressure in the glomerulus (BP)
Bowman's capsule pressure (BCP)
Osmotic pressure of plasma proteins (BOP)
All of the above
ALL OF THE ABOVE
The main overall function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus is to
MAINTAIN A STABLE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)
A substance which causes an increase in urine output would be classified as a/an
If a drug given which inhibits sodium reabsorption by blocking the action of aldosterone, what effect will it likely have on blood potassium levels ?
INCREASE BLOOD POTASSIUM LEVELS
If a substance has a high renal clearance (higher that inulin), it probably is
FILTERED AND SECRETED
If glucose is not reabsorbed from the proximal convoluted tubule, what happens to it ?
IT PASSES INTO THE URINE
When uric acid or calcium salts precipitate out of urine, they may form stones. The medical term for these are
ADH secretion is inhibited by
A buildup of waste products in the blood that should be excreted by the kidneys is called
Glomerular filtration is selective in terms of a particle's
The blood vessels that surround all parts of the renal tubule are called the
PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES (VASA RECTA)
What would be the immediate effect of decreased cardiac output (less blood being pumped) on glomerular filtration rate (assuming no other compensation) ?
What would be the immediate effect of constriction of the afferent arteriole on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ?
Which of the following regions of the nephron is most likely to be found in the renal medulla ?
LOOP OF HENLE
If the Tmax (transport maximum) for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/mL and the concentration of that amino acid in the filtrate is 230 mg/mL, the amino acid
WILL APPEAR IN THE URINE
The renal clearance of glucose is normally zero. This is because
NORMALLY ALL THE GLUCOSE THAT IS FILTERED IS REABSORBED
Urine passes through the
PELVIS OF THE KIDNEY TO URETERS TO BLADDER TO URETHRA
The function of angiotensin II is to
CONSTRICT ARTERIOLES AND INCREASE BLOOD PRESSURE
A dilute urine is formed when the
COLLECTING TUBULE IS IMPERMEABLE TO WATER
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is produced ______ and it converts _______.
LUNGS; ANGIOTENSIN I TO ANGIOTENSIN II
The vessel that carries blood from the abdominal aorta to the kidney is the
All blood cells begin as the same type of cell called a
The average life span of an erythrocyte is normally about
FOUR MONTHS (120 DAYS)
During the first trimester of fetal life, erythropoiesis occurs in the
The heme (ring) portion of the hemoglobin of broken down blood cells is converted to a straight chain compound called
A condition that is common in premature infants and in Rh incompatibility situations in which the erythrocytes are very weak and leads to a build-up of bilirubin in the blood is
A hemocrit of 45% indicates
Healthy adults normally have about how many red blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood ?
Healthy adults normally have about how many white blood cells per cubic millimeter of blood ?
Normally, the most numerous of the leukocytes are the
The type of leukocyte which becomes a mast cell when it enters the tissues are the (according to some sources, these leukocytes may just be very similar to mast cells)
A high white blood cell count is called
What do white blood cells have that red blood cells do not have ?
Acute bacterial infection and tissue destruction is usually characterized by an increase in the number of
The leukocyte which is believed to ingest and destroy antigen-antibody complexes is the
The leukocyte that releases histamine is the
The engulfment of foreign organisms by certain types of blood cells is known as
The first step of coagulation can begin either from factors within the blood or outside the blood. The pathway that is triggered when blood comes in contact with connective tissue or any time thromboplastin is released is called
Regardless of the pathway used in step one of blood coagulation, the product is the same. This product is
Most of the clotting factors require which element to do their job ?