Exam 1 - part 1

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 17, 25, 26
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1

50% to 70% of our body weight is due to

WATER

2

Fluids within body cells are said to be

INTRACELLULAR

3

By far the greatest fluid volume of the body is contained in the

CELLS

4

Water can move from one fluid compartment to another within the body by which of the following processes ?
Osmosis
Filtration
Diffusion
All of the above

ALL OF THE ABOVE

5

The interstitial (tissue) fluid and the blood plasma are separated from each other by the

CAPILLARY WALLS

6

Which of the following would cause us to become thirsty ?

STIMULATION OF OSMORECEPTORS IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

7

A serious fluid deficit is called

DEHYDRATION

8

Which of these would you find significantly more of in blood plasma than in interstitial (tissue) fluid ?

PROTEIN

9

The most abundant ion in the body (not necessarily just in body fluids)is

CALCIUM

10

Extracellular fluids are

LOW IN SODIUM AND HIGH IN POTASSIUM

11

Which of the following routes of water loss can be regulated by the body ?
Skin
Lungs
Saliva
Feces
None of the above can be regulated

NONE OF THE ABOVE CAN BE REGULATED

12

There is only a slight difference in the ion composition between the

PLASMA AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID

13

The electrolyte that has the greatest effect on water movement between body compartments is

SODIUM

14

If a patient experiences prolonged vomiting, which body electrolyte would be lost in the greatest amount ?

CHLORIDE

15

Which of the following could cause an increase in aldosterone release ?
Low blood volume
High potassium levels in the blood
Low sodium levels in the blood
Stress
All of the above

ALL OF THE ABOVE

16

The pH scale measures the concentration of

HYDROGEN IONS

17

The maintenance of proper pH of the body fluids is a result of
The operation of the various buffer systems of the body
The control of respiratory ventilation (breathing rate)
The active secretion of hydrogen ions into the filtrate by the kidney tubule cells
All of the above help maintain the proper pH of the body fluids

ALL OF THE ABOVE HELP MAINTAIN THE PROPER PH OF THE BODY FLUIDS

18

An arterial blood pH of 7.3 would be considered

ACIDOSIS

19

The most abundant buffer system (highest concentration) in plasma and intracellular fluid is the

PROTEIN BUFFER

20

An acid may be defined as

A DONOR OF HYDROGEN

21

If hydrogen ions (from a strong acid) are added to a buffer system, they usually react with a buffer system to form

A WEAK ACID

22

Holding your breath for an extended period of time can result in

RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

23

The osmotic pressure exerted by a solute depends on

THE NUMBER OF SOLUTE MOLECULES ? THE MORE YOU HAVE, THE GREATER THE OSMOTIC PRESSURE

24

The gland most involved in the thirst mechanism is the

HYPOTHALAMUS

25

If you have the same number of particles, a solution of Na+ will have ______ the number of milliequivalents as a Ca2+ solution

HALF

26

Normal saline contains
Water
Sodium
Chloride
All of the above

ALL OF THE ABOVE

27

A drastic decrease in blood osmotic pressure would most likely cause

EDEMA

28

When calcitonin is produced, what happens to blood levels of calcium

THEY DO DOWN (DECREASE)

29

An increase in interstitial fluid osmotic pressure would most likely cause

EDEMA

30

As the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood decreases, blood pH

INCREASES

31

As blood pH levels increase due to metabolic alkalosis, the body will try to compensate by

DECREASING BREATHING RATE

32

Assuming a person is in normal health, our body cells act as miniature factories, with acids being the main by-products of our activity. This means that a healthy person is closest to developing which condition ?

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

33

Water movement between various compartments of the body can occur as a result of

SOLUTE CONCENTRATIONS, WITH WATER MOVING FROM LOW SOLUTE CONCENTRATION TO HIGH SOLUTE CONCENTRATION. AND HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, SUCH AS BLOOD PRESSURE, FORCING FLUID OUT

34

Which of the following is the compound that is formed when a strong base is added to the phosphate buffer system ?

Na2HPO4

35

The outer part of the kidney is the

RENAL CORTEX