Anatomy of Blood Vessels

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1

Arteries

carry blood away from the heart

2

veins

drain tissues and return blood to heart

3

Gas exchange takes place

through the capillary walls

4

capillaries

-contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs
-endothelium w/sparse basal lamina

5

structure of blood vessel walls (arteries and veins)

tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa

6

lumen

central blood-containing space

7

tunica intima

-endothelium lines lumen of all vessels

8

tunica media

-smooth muscle and sheets of elastin
-controlled by sympathetic nervous system

9

tunica externa

-collagen fibers protect and reinforce (connective tissue)
-nourishing layer

10

elastic (conducting) arteries

-large thick walled arteries with elastin in all three tunics
-pressure réservoirs-- expand and recoil as blood is ejected from the heart

11

muscular "pump"

contraction of skeletal muscles that "milk" blood through veins toward the heart

12

pressure changes that occur in the thorax during breathing

aid return of blood to the heart

13

the largest artery of the body

the aorta

14

the aorta is what type of artery

elastic (conducting) artery

15

muscular (distributing) arteries and arterioles

-distal to elastic arteries
-deliver blood to body organs
-have thick tunica media w/more smooth muscle

16

active in vasoconstriction

muscular (distributing) arteries and arterioles

17

arterioles

-smallest arteries
-lead to capillary beds & control flow into capilary beds by vasodilatation and vasoconstriction

18

Capillaries are in all tissues except

cartilage, epithelia, cornea and lens of eye

19

functions of capillaries

exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones, etc.

20

respiratory "pump"

pressure changes during breathing move blood toward heart by squeezing abdominal veins as thoracic veins expand

21

vasoconstriction of veins

under sympathetic control

22

venules

-formed when capillary beds unite
-very porous--allow fluids and WBCs into tissues

23

post-capillary venules consist of

endotheluum and a few pericytes

24

larger venules have

one or two layers of smooth muscle cells

25

veins

-formed when venules converge
-have thinner walls, larger lumens compared to corresponding arteries

26

blood pressure of veins

is lower than in arteries

27

Veins have a _________ tunica media and a thick _____ which consist of

-thin tunica media
-thick tunica externa
-consist of collagen fibers and elastic networks

28

vascular anastomoses

interconnections of blood vessels (networking)