US History Chapter 5 & 6

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United States History
Chapters 5, 6
updated 7 years ago by mschuhler
Grade levels:
11th grade, 12th grade
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1

"New" Immigrant

Southern and Eastern European immigrants who arrived in the United States in a great wave between 1880 and 1920; often unskilled, poor, Catholic or Jewish, and likely to settle in cities rather than on farms

2

Ellis Island

Island in New York Harbor that served as an immigration station for millions of immigrants arriving to the United States

3

Angel Island

Immigrant processing station that opened in San Francisco Bay in 1910; after 1882 the Chinese were often turned away unless they could prove they had had relatives in America; officials often assumed Chinese newcomers would misrepresent themselves in order to gain entry

4

Americanization

Belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens

5

"Melting Pot"

Society in which people of different nationalities assimilate to form one culture; excluded Asian immigrants who became targets of social and legal discrimination

6

Urbanization

Expansion of cities and/or an increase in the number of people living in them

7

Nativism

Belief that native-born white Americans are superior to newcomers

8

Vaudeville

Type of show, including dancing, singing, and comedy sketches, that became popular in the late nineteenth century

9

Assimilation

To be absorbed into the main culture of a society

10

Transcontinental Railroad

Rail link between the eastern and the western United States

11

Land Grant

Land designated by the federal government for building schools, roads, or railroads

12

Exodusters

African Americans who migrated from the South to the West after the Civil War

13

Farmers' Alliance

Network of farmers' organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s; tried to convince the government to force railroads to lower freight prices so members could get their crops to other markets at reduced rates; wanted the government to regulate the interest that banks could charge for loans

14

Sand Creek Massacre

1864 incident in which Colorado militia killed a camp of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians

15

Dawes Act

1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots; the land could not be sold or transferred from its original family for 25 years

16

Gilded Age

Term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-reconstruction era which was characterized by a façade of prosperity

17

Steerage

Worst accommodations on the ship; located on the lower deck with no private cabins, very dirty and crowded, and illness spread quickly

18

Settlement Houses

Volunteer institutions that ran Americanization programs

19

Zoning Laws

Designating certain areas for particular functions

20

Mass Culture's Impact on American Life

Americans became more and more alike

21

Change in Cost of Living

After the Civil War, the cost of living decreased because manufactured products and new technology cost less

22

Tenement Living

Low-cost multifamily housing designed to squeeze in as many families as possible; used space for sewing clothes or doing other piecework to earn money; unhealthy and dangerous

23

Growth of Education

Schools taught courses in science, woodworking, and drafting, providing skills that workers needed in industries; new careers were open to middle-class women; universities began to accept women into their classes; gave more opportunities to African Americans

24

Joseph Pulitzer

Hungarian immigrant who fought in the Civil War and started producing newspapers (as well as William Hearst); believed their purpose was to inform people and to stir up controversy

25

Elisha Otis

Developed a safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke

26

Impact of Mass Transit

Public systems that could carry large numbers of people fairly inexpensive; quiet, clean, and efficient but also blocked fire trucks and traffic congestion prevented streetcars from running on schedule

27

Horatio Alger

Novelist who wrote about characters who succeeded by hard work

28

Growth of Railroads

Used prison labor to keep railroad construction costs down; led to the formation of new cities; linked southern freight to northern freight

29

Civil Rights Act of 1875

Law that banned discrimination in public facilities and transportation

30

Vaqueros

Learned to train horses to work with cattle and developed the roping skills, saddle, lariat, and chaps needed for the job

31

Sitting Bull

Chief of the Sioux Indians who assembled them to drive out the prospectors from their land

32

Battle of Little Big Horn

1876 battle in which the Sioux defeated U.S. Army troops

33

Chief Joseph

Led a group of refugees on a trek of more than 1,300 miles to Canada in order to evade U.S. troops who had come to enforce their relocation

34

Life of a Homesteader

Faced with intense weather conditions; usually couldn't afford to buy lumber; built houses out of sod; houses were dark and dirty; farming became easier and more advanced

35

"Old" Immigrants

Immigrants who came before the Irish and Germans

36

Push Factors

In Mexico, Poland, and China, land reform and low prices forced many farmers off their land; China and Europe experienced wars and political revolutions

37

Pull Factors

The U.S. offered plentiful land and employment; western farmland was inexpensive; railroads offered reduced fares; hopes of striking it rich by finding gold; political and religious freedom

38

Religious differences

Protestants were suspicious of Catholicism; Native-born white protestants would not hire, vote for, or work with Catholics or Jews; some even signed contracts agreeing not to rent or sell property to groups they considered "non-native"