Lymphatic and Immune Questions

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1

The first line of nonspecific defense against pathogens are the [a] and [b]; the second line of nonspecific defense are the [c], [d], and [e].

Correct Answers for: a skin
Correct Answers for: b mucous membranes
Correct Answers for: c antimicrobial cells
Correct Answers for: d natural killer cells
Correct Answers for: e phagocyte

2

Substances that are recognized as foreign and provoke immune responses are known as [a]

Correct Answer: antigens

3

The body's ability to ward off damage or disease through our defenses is known as resistance; vulnerability to disease is susceptibility.

Correct Answer: True

4

A person's T cells must be able to recognize the person's own MHC molecules, a process known as self-recognition, and lack reactivity to peptide fragments from the person's own proteins, a condition known as self-tolerance.

Correct Answer: True

5

Trace the sequence of fluid from blood vessel to blood vessel by way of the lymphatic system. (1) lymphatic vessels, (2) blood capillaries, (3) subclavian veins, (4) lymphatic capillaries, (5) interstitial spaces, (6) arteries, (7) lymphatic ducts.

Correct Answer:
6, 2, 5, 4, 1, 7, 3

6

Which of the following describe lymph nodes? (1) Lymph enters the nodes through efferent lymphatic vessels and leaves through afferent lymphatic vessels. (2) The outer cortex consists of lymphatic nodules that contain B cells and are the sites of plasma cell and memory B cell formation. (3)The inner cortex contains lympahtic nodules with mature T cells. (4) The reticular fibers within the sinuses of the lymph nodes trap foreign substances in the lymph. (5) The sinuses of lymph nodes are known as red pulp.

Correct Answer:
2 and 4
Response Feedback:
(1) is NOT true because lymph enters the nodes through AFFERENT lymphatic vessels and leaves through EFFERENT lymphatic vessels.
(3) is NOT true
(5) is NOT true

7

Which of the following statements are CORRECT? (1) Lymphatic vessels are found throughout the body, except in avascular tissues, the CNS, portions of the spleen, and red bone marrow. (2) Lymphatic capillaries allow interstitial fluid to flow into them but not out of them. (3) Anchoring filaments attach lymphatic endothelial cells to surrounding tissues. (4) Lymphatic vessels freely receive all the components of blood, including the formed elements. (5) Lymph ducts directly connect to blood vessels, by way of the subclavian veins.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 3 and 5

8

Which of the following are mechanical factors that help fight pathogens and disease? (1) tight junctions of epidermal cells, (2) mucus of mucous membranes, (3) saliva, (4) interferons, (5) complement.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, and 3

9

Which of the following are TRUE? (1) Lymphatic vessels resemble arteries. (2) Lymph is very similar to interstitial fluid. (3) Lacteals are specialized lymphatic capillaries responsible for transporting dietary lipids. (4) Lymph is normally a cloudy, pale yellow fluid. (5) The thoracic duct drains lymph from the upper right side of the body. (6) Lymph flow is maintained by skeletal muscle contractions, one-way vales, and breathing movements.

Correct Answer:
2, 3 and 6
Response Feedback:
(1) Lymphatic vessels resemble VEINS
(4) Lymph is normally a CLEAR, pale yellow fluid.
(5) The thoracic duct drains lymph from the upper LEFT side of the body.

10

Place the stages of phagocytosis in the correct order of occurrence.

Correct Answer:
1. chemotactic attraction of phagocyte
2. adherence to microbe
3. ingestion to form a phagosome
4. formation of phagolysosome
5. destruction of microbe

11

Place in order the steps involved in cell-mediated immune response to an exogenous antigen.

Correct Answer:
1. antigen processing by dendritic cells, macrophages, or B cells
2. migration of antigen-presenting cells to lymphatic tissue
3. presentation of antigen to T cells
4. recognition of antigen fragments associated with MHC-II molecules by T-cell receptors.
5. costimulation and activation of T cells
6. proliferation and differentiation of T cells to produce T cell clones
7. secretion of cytokines such as interleukin-2 by activated helper T cells
8. activation of cytotoxic T cells
9. elimination of invaders through the release of granzymes, perforin, granulysin, or lymphotoxin or by attraction and activation of phagocytes.

12

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

encapsulated bean-shaped structures located along the length of lymphatic vessels; contain T and B cells, macrophages, and follicular dendritic cells; filter lymph.

Correct Answer:
3.
lymph nodes

13

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

produces pre-T cells and B cells; found in flat bones and epiphyses of long bones

Correct Answer:
1.
red bone marrow

14

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

clusters of lymphatic nodules involved in immune responses aginast inhaled or ingested foreign substances.

Correct Answer:
7.
tonsils

15

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

the single largest mass of lymphatic tissue int he body; consists of red and white pulp.

Correct Answer:
4.
spleen

16

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

responsible for the maturation of T cells

Correct Answer:
2.
thymus

17

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

lymphatic nodules associated with mucous membranes of the digestive, urinary, reproductive, and respiratory systems.

Correct Answer:
5.
mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

18

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

nonencapsulated clusters of lymphocytes.

Correct Answer:
6.
lymphatic nodules

19

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

encapsulated bean-shaped structures located along the length of lymphatic vessels; contain T and B cells, macrophages, and follicular dendritic cells; filter lymph.

Correct Answer:
3.
lymph nodes

20

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

produces pre-T cells and B cells; found in flat bones and epiphyses of long bones

Correct Answer:
1.
red bone marrow

21

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

clusters of lymphatic nodules involved in immune responses aginast inhaled or ingested foreign substances.

Correct Answer:
7.
tonsils

22

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

the single largest mass of lymphatic tissue int he body; consists of red and white pulp.

Correct Answer:
4.
spleen

23

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

responsible for the maturation of T cells

Correct Answer:
2.
thymus

24

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

lymphatic nodules associated with mucous membranes of the digestive, urinary, reproductive, and respiratory systems.

Correct Answer:
5.
mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

25

Match the following lymphatic organs and tissues with their descriptions

nonencapsulated clusters of lymphocytes.

Correct Answer:
6.
lymphatic nodules

26

Match the following immune cells with their descriptions.

recognize foreign antigens combine with MHC-1 molecules on the surface of body cells infected by microbes, some tumor cells, and cells of a tissue transplant; display CD8 proteins.

Correct Answer:
2.
cytotoxic T cells

27

Match the following immune cells with their descriptions.

are programmed to recognize the reappearance of a previously encountered antigen.

Correct Answer:
3.
memory T cells

28

Match the following immune cells with their descriptions.

differentiate into plasma cells that secrete specific antibodies

Correct Answer:
4.
B cells

29

Match the following immune cells with their descriptions.

process and present exogenous antigens; include macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells

Correct Answer:
7.
antigen-presenting cells

30

Match the following immune cells with their descriptions.

secrete cytokines as costimulators; display CD4 proteins

Correct Answer:
1.
helper T cells

31

Match the following immune cells with their descriptions.

ingest microbes or any foreign particulate matter; include neutrophils and macrophages

Correct Answer:
6.
phagocytes

32

Match the following immune cells with their descriptions.

lymphocytes that have the ability to kill a wide variety of infectious microbes plus certain spontaneously arising tumor cells; lack antigen receptors.

Correct Answer:
5.
NK (natural killer) cells

33

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

particpate in inflammation, opsonization and cytolysis

Correct Answer:
12.
complement proteins

34

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

stimulate histamine release, attract neutrophils by chemotaxis, promote phagocytosis and destroy bacteria.

Correct Answer:
12.
complement proteins

35

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

glycoproteins that mark the surface of all body cells except for RBCs; distinguish self from nonself.

Correct Answer:
8.
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens

36

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

foreign antigens present in fluids outside body cells

Correct Answer:
1.
exogneous antigens

37

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

foreign antigens synthesized within a body cell

Correct Answer:
2.
endogenous antigens

38

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

small protein hormones that stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions; serve as costimulators for B cell and T cell activity.

Correct Answer:
5.
cytokines

39

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

a substance that has reactivity but lacks immunogenicity.

Correct Answer:
4.
hapten

40

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

causes vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels; is found in mast cells in connective tissue and in basophils and platelets in blood.

Correct Answer:
7.
histamine

41

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

polypeptides formed in blood; induce vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels; serve as chemotactic agents for phagocytes

Correct Answer:
9.
kinins

42

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

released by damaged cells; intensify the effects of histamine and kinins

Correct Answer:
14.
prostaglandins

43

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

small parts of antigens that initiate immune responses

Correct Answer:
13.
epitopes

44

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

produced by virus-infected cells, they interfere with viral replication in host cells

Correct Answer:
3.
interferons

45

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

chemicals released by NK and cytotoxic T cells that can cause apoptosis in target cells.

Correct Answer:
6.
granzymes

46

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

glycoproteins that contain four polypeptide chains, two of which are identical to each other and two of which are variable and contain the antigen-binding site.

Correct Answer:
11.
antibodies

47

Match the following immune system components with their descriptions. Some answers may be used more than once.

produced by basophils and mast cells; involved in chemotaxis, adherence, and increased permeability.

Correct Answer:
10.
leukotrienes

48

Which of the following are functions of antibodies? (1) neutralization of antigens. (2) immobilization of bacteria, (3) agglutination and precipitation of antigens, (4) activation of complement, (5) enhancement of phagocytosis.

Correct Answer:
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5