AP Psychology Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Flashcards


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1

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (AKA i-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

2

critical thinking

thinking that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

3

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

4

hypothesis

a testable predictions, often implied by a theory

5

operational definition

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables

6

replication

repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

7

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

8

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group

9

population

all the cases in a group being studied

10

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

11

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

12

correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors very together

13

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

14

scatterplots

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

15

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

16

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect of some behavior or mental process

17

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing the pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups

18

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

19

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone

20

experimental group

the group that is exposed to the treatment

21

control group

the group that is not exposed to the treatment

22

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated

23

dependent variable

the variable that may change in response to the manipulation of the independent variable

24

mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

25

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution

26

median

the middle score in a distribution

27

range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

28

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

29

normal curve

a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

30

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

31

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next