A&PII Vocabulary Words

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1

Afferent (sensory) neuron

a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord

2

Efferent (motor) neuron

a neuron conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord

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Epineurium

The epineurium is the outermost layer of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding a peripheral nerve

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Perineurium

the sheath of connective tissue surrounding a bundle (fascicle) of nerve fibers within a nerve.

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Endoneurium

the innermost layer of connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, forming an interstitial layer around each individual fiber outside the neurilemma

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Nerve

a whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs.

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Neuron

a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.

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Myelin sheath

a layer of myelin encasing (and insulating) the axons of medullated nerve fibers

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Axon

the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.

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Astrocyte

a star-shaped glial cell of the central nervous system.

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Microglial cell

Microglia are a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Ependymal cell

Ependyma is the thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricular system of the brain and the spinal cord. Ependyma is one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system. It is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Oligodendrocyte

a glial cell similar to an astrocyte but with fewer protuberances, concerned with the production of myelin in the central nervous system.

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Schwann Cell

any cell that covers the nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system and forms the myelin sheath

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Satellite cell

Satellite glial cells are a type of glial cell that line the exterior surface of neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Satellite glial cells (SGCs) also surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia.[

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Central Nervous System

the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.

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Peripheral Nervous System

the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.

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Synapse

a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

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Neurotransmitter

a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.

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Ganglion

a structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and often forming a swelling on a nerve fiber.

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Nuclei

Center of the nucleus

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Neuroglia

the connective tissue, consisting of a special type of branched cells, that binds together and supports the nerve tissue of the central nervous system

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Association Neuron

An interneuron is a multipolar neuron which connects afferent neurons and efferent neurons in neural pathways

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Mixed Nerves

A nerve that contains both motor and sensory nerve fibers.