human growth and development through the lifespan exam 1 Flashcards


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1

heredity

inborn traits or characteristics inherited form the biological parents (intelligence, maturation of the body and brain)

2

environment

the world outside the self beginning in the womb, and the learning that comes from experience (socioeconomic status, culture)

3

normative

biological or environmental events that affect many or most people in a society in similar ways(people in a certain age group, timing of biological events, puberty)

4

non normative

unusual events that have a major impact on individual lives b/c they disturb the expected sequence of the life cycle (death of a parent, winning the lottery, deciding to have a baby at a late age, skydiving)

5

bio ecological

ranging from intimate to broad environmental influence:
-microsystem:everyday environment(home, school, work, spouse, family)
-mesosystem: linkages between home and school, work and neighborhood
-exosystem: linkage between microsystem and outside systems (communities transit system effecting job opportunitites)
-macrosystem: cultural patterns (beliefs, ideologies, political systems)
-chronosystem: dimension of time relating to change or constancy (residence, employment place, wars)

6

critical periods

specific time when a given even or its absence has a specific impact on development ( a woman having a disease during a certain point in her pregnancy may reflect negatively on the fetus)

7

correlational research method

intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists (children who watch more violent television tend to fight more; the less education, the more dementia)

8

experimental research method

rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in which the researcher manipulates variables to assess the effect of one on the other (experimental group and control groups)(can have random assignments of people to prove validity)(can show causal relationships)

9

independent variable

in an experiment, the condition over which the experimenter has direct control (can be manipulated to see how the dependent variable reacts)

10

dependent variable

the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable

11

experimental group

the group receiving the treatment under study

12

control group

a group of people, similar to those in the experimental group, who do not receive the treatment under study

13

research study using independent, dependent, experimental, and control

depression drugs: control group receives placebos, experimental group receives actual drug, independent variable is the the placebo, dependent variable is the actual drug

14

Freud's five stages of development

oral: pleasure involves mouth-oriented activities

anal: gratification from withholding and expelling feces

phallic: becomes attached to other sex and later identifies with same-sex parent

latency: time of relative calm between more turbulent stages

genital: reemergence of sexual impulses of phallic stage, channeled into mature adult sexuality

15

Erickson's first five stages

basic trust vs mistrust: sense of whether world is good and safe (hope)

autonomy vs shame and doubt: develops balance of independence and self-sufficiency over shame and doubt (will)

initiative vs guilt: develops initiative when trying out new activities and is not overwhelmed by guilt (purpose)

industry vs inferiority: learn skills of the culture or face feelings of incompetence (skill)

identity vs identity confusion: determine own sense of self or experience confusion about roles (fidelity)

16

classical conditioning

learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response(ivan pavlov and his dogs)(little albert being afraid of white furry things)

17

operant conditioning

learning based on association of behavior with its consequences (baby making noises and being comforted)(skinner with rats and pigeons)

18

social learning theory

behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models (you act how the worlds acts toward you, you learn by watching parents or friends behaviors, form standards for their behavior and develop self-confidence)

19

Piaget's cognitive stage theory parts

Organization: create categories (birds) from characteristics

Adaptation: handling information despite what they already know (baby learning to use a cup instead of using a bottle)

Equilibrium: striving for balance (baby learns to use sippy cup instead of bottle)

20

psychoanalytic perspective

human crises stemming from conflict arising between biological need and drives and the expectation of society; heredity and biological aspects are stressed; Freud and Erickson

21

mechanistic (behaviorism) perspective

environment and observable behaviors; all infants are born with no skills, but that experiences in the environment(rewards and punishments) determine the process of development; Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, Bandura

22

organismic (cognitive) perspective

individuals are born with certain skills and go through a series of qualitatively different stages of development; Piaget's theory of development and Kohlberg's theory of moral development are examples

23

humanistic perspective

focuses on ways that humans learn to adapt to their environments; humanists focus on the search for personal meaning in their lives; Maslow and Buhler

24

ethological (attachment) perspective

critical periods for development of attachment; Lorenz, Bowlby, Ainsworth all focused on the biological and evolutionary bases of behavior