Pathophysiology Notecards

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1

The study of the functional changes that occur in the body as a result of injury, disorder, or disease.

Pathophysiology

2

The study of changes in cells and tissues as a result of injury or disease.

Pathology

3

The mechanisms of human body functioning.

Physiology

4

How the human body is put together, including the component parts operate together.

Structure

5

Concerned with how these component parts operate together.

Function

6

The functional impairment of cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems.

Disease

7

A specific condition with a recognizable, predictable pattern.

Syndrome

8

The disease beginning.

Pathogenesis

9

Vulnerabilities

Risk factors

10

Precise cause of disease.

Etiology

11

Disease-causing microorganism

Pathogen

12

Having more than one genetic and/or environmental causing events

Multifactorial

13

When a disease has no known etiology

Idiopathic

14

The result of exposure to infection in the health care environment

Nosocomial disease

15

Diseases that are the inadvertent result of medical treatment.

Iatrogenic disease

16

The presenting signs and symptoms of the disease

Clinical manifestations

17

Indicators that are reported by the ill individual and are considered the "subjective" manifestations.

Symptoms

18

Triggers

Precipitating factors

19

The manifestations that are found directly at the site of disease and are confined to that specific area

Local manifestation

20

Manifestations that present throughout the body and are not confined to one area

Systemic manifestations

21

Manifestations or diseases that begin abruptly and last a few days to a few months.

Acute manifestations

22

Diseases that generally last longer than 6 months and are insidious in onset

Chronic diseases

23

Gradual

Insidious

24

Symptom-free periods

Remissions

25

Flaring of symptoms

Exacerbations

26

A term used to describe diseases that fall somewhere between acute and chronic in duration and severity.

Subacute

27

The person does not have any noticeable symptoms even though diagnostic tests may indicate that the disease is present

Asymptomatic

28

Label for the disease

Diagnosis

29

The human response to illness, such as altered fluid balance and ineffective airway clearance

Nursing diagnoses

30

The forecast or prediction of how the individual will proceed through the disease process.

Prognosis

31

A negative outcome with disease complications that impact the quality of life

Morbidity

32

Death

Mortality

33

The perceived wholeness of body, mind, and spirit

Health

34

A state that results in suffering or distress

Illness

35

A dynamic balance in the body marked by the appropriate and effective response to stimuli, thereby keeping the body in a steady state.

Homeostasis

36

The study of disease in populations

Epidemiology

37

The rate of occurrence of a disease at any given time

Incidence

38

When the incidence and prevalence of a disease are predictable and stable

Endemic

39

A dramatic increase in disease incidence in a population

Epidemic

40

When an epidemic spreads across continents

Pandemic

41

Prohibits a disease condition from occurring

Primary prevention

42

The early detection and treatment of disease through screening

Secondary prevention

43

Rehabilitation of a patient after detection of disease.

Tertiary prevention

44

A general idea that can be applied to similar situations

Concept

45

The third line of defense

Immune response

46

Defined in the broadest sense to include any form of damage or alteration to cells or tissues

Injury

47

To increase blood flow to the site of an injury

Vascular response

48

To alert the products of healing to attend to the site of injury

Cellular response

49

Widen

dilate

50

Loosens

Permeable

51

Form a tight junction within the inner lining of the blood and lymphatic vessels and the heart

Endothelial cells

52

The outer membrane of the vessels, which separates the vessel from the tissues of the body

Basement membrane

53

The process of engulfing and removing harmful agents

Phagocytosis

54

Watery fluid

Exudate

55

Facilitate the process of widening and loosening of the blood.

Inflammatory mediators

56

Leukocytes that are housed throughout the connective tissues of the body and near all blood vessels

Mast cell

57

When the mast cell breaks apart and releases inflammatory mediators in the form of extracellular granules (grain-like particles)

Degranulation

58

A white blood cell that also contains granules

Basophil

59

More than a hundred distinct cell proteins most often found within white blood cells that have a vital role in regulating inflammation

Cytokines

60

A complex lipid stored in cell membranes, including those of endothelial cells that line blood vessels and in many other types of cells that can become injured

Platelet-activating factor

61

A substance, derived from the plasma membrane of an injured cell, which generates various inflammatory mediators through a complex chemical conversion

Arachidonic acid

62

A self-attack against body tissues

Autoimmunity

63

A process of moving certain cells to the site of injury

Chemotaxis

64

Specific inflammatory mediators

Chemotactic factors

65

Attraction and binding

Cellular adherence

66

In this process, cells can move between and through endothelial junctions

Diapedesis

67

The local manifestations of acute inflammation

Cardinal signs

68

Redness

Erythema

69

Enlargement and inflammation of the nearby lymph nodes

Lymphadenitis

70

An elevation in white blood cells

Leukocytosis

71

A protective clot and subsequent scab

Thrombus

72

The layers of architectural structures that support the cells

Extracellular matrix (ECM)

73

The movement of epithelial cells to form a covering over the wound

Re-epithelialization

74

Tissues made up of cells with a specific function

Parenchymal tissues

75

Important cells that produce and replace the connective tissue layer

Fibroblasts

76

Helps to fill in the gaps left after the removal of damaged tissues

Collagen

77

Allows stretching and recoil of tissue

Elastin

78

Regulate cell movement across the matrix, provide a place for the attachment of the cells to the matrix, and prompt the cells to function

Glycoproteins

79

A temporary matrix that promotes healing by decreasing blood and fluid loss at the site and attracting and supporting fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epidermal cells.

Provisional matrix

80

Connective tissue characterized by extensive macrophages and fibroblasts

Granulation tissue

81

The generation of new blood vessels

Angiogenesis

82

Healing in response to mild injury with minimal disruption to cells

Resolution

83

Can occur only in those cells that undergo mitotic division; accomplished through proliferation, differentiation, or diapedesis

Regeneration

84

Growth and reproduction

Proliferation

85

Cells mature and become more specialized

Differentiation

86

Migration of nearby cells

Diapedesis

87

Cells that constantly regenerate through mitosis, particularly epithelial cells of the skin, GI tract, and urinary tract, and blood cells in the bone marrow

Labile cells

88

Cells that stop regenerating when growth is complete but can resume regeneration if injured

Stable cells

89

Occurs in extensive wounds and when regeneration is not possible

Replacement through the production of scar tissue

90

Cells that do not undergo mitosis and are unable to regenerate

Permanent cells

91

When the wound is basically closed with all areas of the wound connecting and healing simultaneously.

Primary intention

92

When wounds heal from the bottom up; process is much slower and more involved than the primary intention process

Secondary intention

93

Passage of oxygenated blood

Perfusion

94

Circumscribed, open, craterlike lesion of the skin or mucous membranes

Ulcers

95

A problem of deficient scar formation, in which the wound splits or bursts open, often at a suture line

Wound dehiscence

96

Hypertrophic scars that result from excessive collagen production at the site of injury

Keloids

97

Fibrous connections between serous cavities and nearby tissues, which do not allow the surrounding tissues to move freely

Adhesions

98

Enzymes that destroy elastin and other tissue components

Proteinases

99

Nodular inflammatory lesions that encase harmful substances

Granulomas

100

Phagocytes that can engulf particles much larger than the typical macrophage

Giant cells

101

Gather and contain smaller substances by forming a wall, or fibrotic granuloma, around the affected area

Epithelioid cells

102

First-degree burns

Superficial partial-thickness burns

103

Second-degree burns

Deep partial-thickness burns

104

Third-degree burns

Full-thickness burns

105

Areas of thick, shortened, and rigid tissue

Contractures

106

A state of inadequate perfusion to peripheral tissues

Shock

107

A bacterial infection of the blood, and septic shock

Sepsis

108

A thick, coagulated crust

Eschar

109

A clear fluid that seeps out of the tissue

Serous exudate

110

A process of mechanically removing debris, including necrotic tissue, from the wound

Debridement

111

A generic term for degeneration or inflammation of the joints and refers to a group of diseases of varying pathogenesis

Arthritis

112

Granulation tissue that forms over the inflamed synovium and cartilage as a result of accelerated angiogenesis

Pannus

113

A condition where fibrosis impairs joint mobility and can result in a debilitating fixation of the joint

Ankylosis

114

Inflammation of the lining of the stomach, or gastric mucosa, thereby impairing gastric function.

Gastritis

115

A vague epigastric discomfort associated with nausea and heartburn

Dyspepsia

116

An abnormal track or passage that forms between two segments of bowel or other epithelial tissue

Fistula

117

Hidden

Occult

118

A state where tissue readily bleeds

Friability

119

The process by which the body recognizes foreign substances and neutralizes them to prevent damage

Immunity

120

The study of the structure and function of the immune system as well as the phenomena of immunity, induced sensitivity, and allergy

Immunology

121

A substance that induces a state of sensitivity or an immune response

Antigen

122

One of the two precursor cell types that include natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes

Lymphoid progenitor cells

123

One of the two precursor cell types that produce other types of cells through the granulocyte/macrophage progenitor which include monocytes, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and mast cells

Myeloid progenitor cells

124

Cells that mature and fully differentiate in the thymus

T lymphocytes

125

A type of T lymphocyte that directs destruction of antigen carrying cells

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes

126

A type of T lymphocyte that enhances humoral and cell-mediated responses of the immune system

Helper T lymphocytes

127

A type of T lymphocyte that inhibits humoral and cell-mediated responses

Suppressor T lymphocytes

128

A unique receptor that is able to bind to antigens, promoting a specific immune response

T-cell receptor (TCR)

129

Lymphocytes that differentiate into plasma cells in the bone marrow; produce and secrete antibodies after contact with an antigen

B lymphocytes

130

Receptor bound to the cell membrane of the B cell; association with antigen activates plasma cells to produce and secrete antibodies

B-cell receptor

131

A group of structurally related proteins important in immune function; composed of a variable region promoting antigen specificity and a constant region; classifications include IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE

Immunoglobulin

132

Large, granular lymphocytes; non-specific cytotoxic cells

Natural killer cells

133

Phagocytic cells named for the cytoplasmic granules common to all types; polymorphonuclear leukocytes, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

Granulocytes

134

Granulocyte present in the greatest number; most important in the rapid response to bacterial infection; phagocytic; the first responders in the inflammatory response

Neutrophils

135

Granulocyte with greatest protection against parasites

Eosinophils

136

Granulocyte that complements the actions of mast cells; important in establishing allergic reactions

Basophils

137

Large, mononuclear leukocytes representing 3% to 7% of the total number of circulating leukocytes associated with a prolonged inflammatory response

Monocytes

138

Large, long-lived phagocytic leukocyte found within body tissues associated with a prolonged inflammatory response

Macrophages

139

Process and display of antigens to T lymphocytes; take up antigens when they are encountered in the circulation

Dendritic cells

140

Immature dendritic cells in the skin; carry surface receptors for immunoglobulin and complement, important in the immune response

Langerhans' cells

141

Sites for maintenance of the lymphocytes; are the organs in which immune responses are often initiated; organs include the spleen, lymph nodes, and other lymphoid mucosal tissue, such as tonsils and the appendix

Peripheral organs

142

Circulates lymphocytes in lymph fluid; work in concert with the blood vessels to promote an effective immune response

Lymphatic system

143

Filtration product of extracellular fluid from tissues

Lymph fluid

144

Joined segment of lymphatic vessels

Lymph nodes

145

Lymphocytes that have not yet encountered an antigen

Naive lymphocytes

146

Responsible for early, rapid response to pathogens without prior exposure

Innate immunity

147

Cell-mediated and humoral immunity; specific immune response occurring during a lifetime

Adaptive immunity

148

Cells that process and present antigen for recognition by immune cells

Antigen-presenting cells

149

Particles that are not part of the individual

Nonself

150

Adaptive immunity involving antibodies

Humoral immunity

151

Immunoglobulins that react with an antigen in a specific way; produced by activated plasma cells

Antibodies

152

Structure forming the base of the Y-shaped antibody; the most stable component

Constant region

153

Structure of antibody that allows binding to specific antigens

Variable regions

154

Differentiated B cells capable of responding much more rapidly when re-exposed to the same antigen; dramatically shortening and intensifying the immunologic response

Memory cells

155

Process by which memory cells respond much more rapidly when reexposed to the same antigen; dramatically shortens and intensifies the immunologic response

Immunologic memory

156

The selection and activation of specific B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes by the binding of epitopes to B or T cell receptors with a corresponding fit

Clonal selection

157

The proliferation of B and T lymphocytes activated by clonal selection to produce a clone of identical cells; enables the body to have sufficient numbers of antigen-specific lymphocytes to mount an effective immune response

Clonal expansion

158

Making ineffective any action, process, or potential

Neutralization

159

A process of rendering bacteria vulnerable to phagocytosis

Opsonization

160

A component of adaptive immunity; cytotoxic T cell-mediated destruction of pathogen and infected host cell

Cell-mediated immunity

161

Determine specific functions and responses of T-cell subtypes

Clusters of differentiation (CD)

162

Subtype of cytotoxic T lymphocyte that expresses the molecule CD8 on its cell surface

CD8 T lymphocytes

163

Subtype of helper T lymphocyte that expresses the molecule CD4 on its cell surface

CD4 T lymphocytes

164

1 class of CD4 helper T lymphocytes; activate macrophages, secrete chemokines and cytokines to attract macrophages; promote fusion of lysosomes with vesicles containing bacteria; and stimulate phagocytosis

Th1 cells

165

2 class of CD4 helper T lymphocytes; activate B cells to produce antibodies

TH2 cells

166

The major histocompatibility complex proteins in humans; HLA genes encode antigen specificity; important in transplant rejection

Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)

167

Alteration of pathogen protein particles to evade recognition and stimulation of memory in the immune system

Antigenic variation

168

A period of dormancy

Latency

169

Condition resulting from an inadequate immune defense; may be primary (directly caused by an alteration in immunity) or secondary (a consequence of another disease process)

Immunodeficiency

170

Protein promoting altered reactivity responses by the immune system

Allergens

171

Describes individuals having a genetic predisposition to developing hypersensitivities

Atopic

172

Extreme manifestation to foreign protein or other substance

Anaphylaxis

173

Complex-mediated immune response in the skin resulting in an area of localized tissue necrosis

Arthus reaction

174

Reaction after allergen contact that is slow in onset and peaks after 36 to 48 hours; associated with a type IV cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions

175

Initial phase of delayed hypersensitivity reaction; stimulated by entry of antigen via the skin and presentation of antigen by Langerhans cells, stimulating immune responses

Sensitization phase

176

Second phase of delayed hypersensitivity reaction; memory cells in the dermis are stimulated after presentation with antigen by Langerhans cells, prompting activation of memory T cells and stimulation of cell-mediated responses

Elicitation phase

177

Immune responses directed at an individual's own tissues

Autoimmune

178

The process of converting lymphocytes from nonresponsive to self-reactive

Lymphocyte ignorance

179

Close resemblance between foreign antigen and self-antigen

Molecular mimicry

180

Propagation of a condition among family members

Familial tendency

181

Suppress autoreactive lymphocytes and regulate the immune response; also known as suppressor T cells

Regulatory T cells

182

Describes something that occurs in more than one form

Polymorphic

183

Containing several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes; interaction of several genes influenced by environmental factors

Polygenic

184

Grafts from different sites on the same person

Autograft

185

Graft from genetically identical individuals

Syngeneic

186

Graft between unrelated individuals

Allograft

187

Proteins that vary between individuals

Alloantigens

188

Antibodies produced against alloantigens

Alloantibodies

189

Rapid rejection of grafts

Hyperacute graft rejection

190

The most common form of tissue transplant; infusion of donor blood into recipient

Blood transfusion

191

The process by which the recipient's blood type is determined

Blood typing

192

A condition in which transplanted donor T lymphocytes mount an immune response against the host

Graft versus host disease (GVHD)

193

A major glucocorticoid secreted from the adrenal cortex that regulates metabolism, inflammatory/immune responses, and the stress response

Cortisol

194

Transfer of the genetic code from one type of ribonucleic acid to another; based on the nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA template

Transcription

195

Blood levels of substances much higher than would normally be expected

Supraphysiologic

196

Weakened; reduced ability to cause disease

Attenuated

197

Antigens that promote activation of more than one cell type

Conjugated vaccines

198

Enveloped retrovirus that infects CD4 T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages; virus associated with the secondary immunodeficiency, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

199

Development of antibodies to a particular antigen

Seroconversion

200

Swelling or enlargement of the lymph nodes

Lymphadenopathy

201

Contraction of the smooth muscle in the bronchi and bronchioles of the lungs, decreasing airway size

Bronchospasm

202

Sensation of itching

Urticaria

203

Sudden subcutaneous edema

Angioedema

204

Dormancy; temporary resting

Quiescence

205

Rash over cheeks; characteristic manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Malar

206

Red, raised, round rash

Discoid

207

Skin sensitivity to the sun resulting in rash

Photosensitivity

208

Circumscribed, open, craterlike lesion of the skin or mucous membranes

Ulcers

209

Inflammation of the lining of the lungs or pleural cavity

Pleuritis

210

Inflammation of the lining of the heart

Pericarditis

211

Protein in the urine

Proteinuria

212

Compacted collection of protein, cells, and debris that are formed in kidney tubules

Cellular casts

213

Abnormally low number of platelets

Thrombocytopenia

214

Destruction of blood cells

Hemolytic

215

Insertion of a needle into the uterine cavity to obtain a sample of amniotic fluid

Amniocentesis

216

Microorganisms that live on or within the body in nonsterile areas without causing harm

Resident flora

217

A disease-causing organism, such as a virus

Pathogen

218

Ability of a pathogen to produce an infectious disease; involving multiple factors, including the pathogen's potency, invasiveness, ability to evade the immune system, speed of replication, production of toxins, adherence to the human host cell, and the degree of tissue damage that is elicited

Pathogenicity

219

The potency of a pathogen indicated by the ratio of the number of cases of disease in a population compared with the number of people exposed to the microorganism

Virulence

220

The proportion of exposures needed to cause infection in an individual based on the pathogens' ability to enter, survive in, and multiply in the host

Infectivity

221

The ability of a pathogen to produce harmful toxins that increase host cell and tissue damage

Toxigenicity

222

The level to which a pathogen is viewed by the host immune system as foreign

Antigenicity

223

A process of eluding the human host defenses; often a result of altering the antigens present within or on the surface of the microorganism

Antigenic variability

224

The ways in which many pathogens have developed ways to avoid destruction by the host, such as through thick protective capsules, which prevent phagocytosis

Pathogenic defense mechanisms

225

A phenomenon of hosting two or more pathogens simultaneously

Coinfection

226

When a new infection arises in addition to one that is already present

Superinfection

227

Parasites that require the host for metabolism and reproduction

Obligate parasites

228

Microorganisms that may live on the host but can also survive independently

Facultative parasites

229

Single-celled microorganisms that can reproduce outside of host cells

Bacteria

230

Microorganisms that require oxygen for growth

Aerobic

231

Bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth

Anaerobic

232

The cytoplasm of bacteria that contains extensive ribosomes, proteins, and carbohydrates, but does not contain mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or other membraneous components

Cytosol

233

A complex of phospholipid-polysaccharide molecules that form the structural component of the gram-negative cell wall and causes inflammatory mediators to be released, leading to a massive inflammatory response

Endotoxin

234

Pathogens that induce fever

Pyogenic

235

Potent substances produced by many bacteria, which result in host cell dysfunction or lysis

Exotoxins

236

Obligate intracellular parasites

Viruses

237

Particles released by cells infected by viruses, which can enter and infect other nearby cells

Virions

238

A period of dormancy

Latency

239

Unicellular forms of fungi that reproduce by budding

Yeasts

240

A multicellular form of fungus

Molds

241

Elongated chains formed by yeast through budding

Pseudohyphae

242

Tubular branches formed by mold colonies

Hyphae

243

A cluster of hyphae formed from mold colonies

Mycelium

244

Infections with fungi as the pathogen

Mycoses

245

Those that cause disease only in a host with a compromised immune system

Opportunistic pathogens

246

The softening and breaking down of tissue

Maceration

247

A vehicle that harbors a pathogen and carries it to a host

Vector

248

Diseases that are spread from person to person, often through contact with infected blood and body fluids

Communicable diseases

249

A device that uses steam heat at high pressures to sterilize objects

Autoclave

250

A standard of health care that recognizes all blood and body fluid as potentially infected

Universal precautions

251

The individual who is exposed to and contracts an infection

Host

252

A problem of microorganisms gaining access to the blood and circulating throughout the body

Septicemia

253

A state in which bacteria gain access to the blood

Bacteremia

254

A condition of altered perfusion by shock as the result of overwhelming systemic infection, often with gram-negative bacteria leading to inadequate perfusion of vital organs

Septic shock

255

Exudate that contains pus

Purulent

256

A process of changing genetic composition during replication in the human host cell leading to viral offspring with altered antigenic properties

Reassortment

257

A blood bypass through which deoxygenated blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, and pancreas travel to the liver by way of the portal vein before moving on to the vena cava and heart

Portal circulation

258

Phagocytes housed in the liver

Kupffer cells

259

The yellow-tinged color of the skin and sclera of the eyes in those with liver disease

Jaundice

260

The formation of new red blood cells

Erythropoiesis

261

An end-stage liver disease marked by interference of blood flow to the liver and widespread hepatocyte damage

Cirrhosis

262

The upward movement of an infection

Ascending

263

Pain with urination

Dysuria

264

The need to urinate immediately

Urgency

265

Blood in the urine

Hematuria

266

Purulent exudate (pus) in the urine

Pyuria

267

Infection and subsequent inflammation of the kidneys

Pyelonephritis

268

A condition in which the eyes are extremely sensitive to light

Photophobia

269

A hyperextended stiff neck related to meningeal irritation

Nuchal rigidity

270

A test used to elicit meningeal pain; the patient is placed supine with knees bent and hips flexed, one knee is lifted upward, thereby eliciting pain

Kernig sign

271

A test of meningeal irritation where the patient is supine and the neck is quickly flexed; this activity elicits pain along with involuntary flexion of the hips and knees

Brudzinski sign

272

Passage of characteristics from parent to offspring

Heredity

273

Type of nucleic acid containing a sugar (deoxyribose); usually found in the cell nucleus and mitochondria; responsible for the storage of genetic information; made up of four nitrogenous bases, including adenine (A) and guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

274

Parent compound of the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) and guanine (G)

Purines

275

Parent compound of the nitrogenous bases cytosine (C) and thymine (T)

Pyrimidines

276

Nitrogen base combinations; DNA base pairs including cytosine and guanine, and adenine and thymine

Base pairs

277

Hereditary units containing information for the production of proteins

Genetic code

278

Sequence of three forms of nitrogen bases forms; nucleotide triplet; fundamental triplet code necessary for protein synthesis; basic compounds produced are amino acids

Codon

279

Nucleic acid that contains a sugar (ribose); responsible for the control of protein synthesis; made up of the four nitrogenous bases, including adenine (A) and guanine (G), cytosine (C) and uracil (U)

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

280

Template for protein synthesis; depends on a codon sequence based on that of the complementary strand of DNA (cDNA); cytoplasmic area where protein is made in amino acid sequences

Messenger RNA

281

Different ways of assembling exons to produce a variety of mature mRNAs

Alternative splicing

282

Segment of DNA coded for protein production

Exons

283

Segment of DNA not involved in protein expression

Introns

284

Involved in the production of proteins with specific amino acid arrangements through interaction with mRNA

Transfer RNA

285

Form of RNA of ribosomes; associated with mRNA in the translation of the genetic code

Ribosomal RNA

286

Process involved in the production of protein from amino acids

Translation

287

Double-stranded DNA containing threadlike sections of genes that form an individual's genetic code; most commonly found in the cell nucleus; responsible for reproduction of physical and chemical structures; human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes: 22 paired autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes

Chromosomes

288

Process of reproduction of nuclear chromosomes in somatic cells; reproductive phases include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase; results in the creation of daughter cells with the same chromosome number and genetic makeup as the cell of origin

Mitosis

289

Process of sex cell (gamete) division; cell division resulting in gametocytes containing half (haploid) the number of chromosomes found in a somatic cell

Meiosis

290

Structure linking the chromosome pairs of the somatic cells of the body; divides the chromosome into two arms; constant position for each chromosome

Centromere

291

The number of chromosomes a human body cell contains; 23 pairs of chromosomes, or a total of 46

Diploid

292

Chromosomes other than a sex chromosome; totals 44 chromosomes in each body cell

Autosomes

293

Known as X and Y; the genetic determinants of the sex of an individual

Sex chromosomes

294

Ova and sperm; contains only one of the chromosome pairs, known as the haploid number

Gametes

295

Cells containing single chromosomes, rather than pairs; chromosome number totals 23 (22 autosomes, 1 sex chromosome); characteristic of gametes

Haploid

296

Transfer of the genetic code from one type of ribonucleic acid to another; based on the nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA template

Transcription

297

Study of the human genome; includes the functions and interactions of all genes compromising an individual

Genomics

298

Genetic makeup of an individual

Genotype

299

Genetic traits that are apparent or observable

Phenotype

300

A series of two or more different genes occupying the same location on a specific chromosome

Alleles

301

Containing several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II genes; interaction of several genes influenced by environmental factors

Polygenic

302

Change in genes or sequence of base pairs that make up the chromosomes; genetic alteration perpetuated in subsequent cellular divisions

Mutations

303

A mutation occurring in body cells, rather than gametes; not transmittable to subsequent generations

Somatic mutation

304

Occurring in more than one form

Polymorphism

305

The evidence of the gene in the phenotype

Expressivity

306

Ability of a gene to express a mutation; influences the effects of mutations

Penetrance

307

Characteristics passed on by the transmission of a single gene

Single gene traits

308

Identical alleles on each chromosome

Homozygous

309

Different alleles on each chromosome

Heterozygous

310

Predictable trait transmission based on autosomal dominant or recessive genotypes

Mendelian pattern

311

An allele possessed by one of the parents of a hybrid that is expressed in the latter to the exclusion of a contrasting allele (the recessive) from the other parent

Dominant

312

Trait caused by a particular allele that does not manifest itself in the presence of other alleles that generate traits dominant to it

Recessive

313

Characteristics passed on by sex chromosomes; most often recessive traits; often linked to the X chromosome

Sex-linked

314

Heterozygous for a recessive genetic mutation; able to transmit the genetic mutation to subsequent generations in the absence of a disease phenotype

Carriers

315

Transmitted through female or maternal lines

Matrilineal

316

Random distribution of genes leading to a variable distribution in tissues

Heteroplasmy

317

Picture of arranged, paired, like chromosomes in order from largest to smallest

Karyotype

318

Failure of chromosome separation during meiosis or mitosis; results in an unequal number of chromosomes

Nondisjunction

319

Combination of cell lines with regular and altered numbers of chromosomes

Mosaicism

320

One copy of a chromosome, in place of the normal pair; the result of nondisjuncture

Monosomy

321

Presence of three copies of a chromosome in place of the normal pair; the result of nondisjuncture

Trisomy

322

Exchange of a section of chromosome from one to another; often occurs during meiosis; able to be transferred to subsequent generations

Translocation

323

Regulation of the expression of gene activity without alteration of genetic structure

Epigenetic

324

An epigenetic phenomenon; mechanism that controls of all genes compromising an individual

Genomic imprinting

325

Embryologic period of organ development

Organogenesis

326

Substances causing damage to a developing embryo or fetus

Teratogens

327

Condition resulting from exposure of a fetus to alcohol; characterized by mental handicap, growth deficit, and physical disability

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

328

Damage to a developing fetus

Congenital defects

329

Identification of genetic abnormalities before implantation of the blastocyst in the maternal uterine lining, the decidua

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

330

Early embryo

Blastomere

331

Abnormal chromosome number

Aneuploidy

332

Difficulty in performing voluntary movements

Dyskinesia

333

Single gene disorder resulting from a mutation of the sickle beta globin gene; characterized by sickled hemoglobin (HbS); autosomal recessive

Sickle cell anemia

334

Adult form of hemoglobin

Hemoglobin A

335

Sickled form of hemoglobin

Hemoglobin S

336

Breakdown of red blood cells

Hemolysis

337

Yellow, lipid-soluble byproduct of hemoglobin; elevated levels result in jaundice

Bilirubin

338

Heterozygous for a mutation of the sickle beta globin gene; carrier of the autosomal recessive trait

Sickle cell trait

339

Enzyme important in catalyzing oxidation-reduction mitochondrial reactions in cellular respiration

Cytochrome oxidase

340

Cystic structure containing serous fluid

Hygroma

341

Fully differentiated body part with specialized functions

Organs

342

Groups of similar cell types that combine to form a specific function; the four major tissue types in the body include epithelium (skin), connective tissue (including blood, bone, and cartilage), muscle and nerve

Tissues

343

Smallest component of the living individual

Cells

344

An organized structure composed of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins arranged in a bilayer; protects the cell by creating a barrier against the potentially hostile environment surrounding it

Plasma membrane

345

Two interconnected layers of the plasma membrane; the lipid (fat-soluble) layer contains phospholipid and glycolipid

Bilayer

346

An organized structure of two interconnected layers composed of nonpolar hydrophobic lipids tails connected to polar hydrophilic heads

Lipid bilayers

347

Phosphate bound to lipid heads of the plasma membrane

Phospholipids

348

Carrying a distribution of electrons that repels water; possessing affinity to water

Polar (hydrophilic)

349

Compound lacking positive or negative charge; lacking affinity to water

Nonpolar (hydrophobic)

350

Sugar bound to lipid heads of the plasma membrane

Glycolipids

351

Protein extending through the plasma membrane, contacting both the intracellular and extracellular components

Transmembrane proteins

352

Form of transmembrane protein; forms a channel in the plasma membrane for transport of ions

Integral proteins

353

Colloid substance surrounding the cell nucleus composed of water, proteins, fats, electrolytes, glycogen, and pigments

Cytoplasm

354

Structures within a cell that perform a distinct function

Organelles

355

Cellular organelle composed of a complex network of tubules; important in the production of proteins and fats and ion regulation; subtypes include rough and smooth

Endoplasmic reticulum

356

Cellular organelle with a membranous structure; prepares substances by the endoplasmic reticulum for secretion out of the cell

Golgi apparatus

357

Cellular organelle composed of small sacs surround by membrane; responsible for hydrolytic digestion of cellular debris

Lysosome

358

Cellular organelle made up of small membrane-enclosed sacs; promote cell survival by oxidation of oxygen free radicals

Peroxisomes

359

An oxygen atom carrying an unpaired electron and no charge

Oxygen free radicals

360

Large cellular organelle that recognizes abnormally folded or formed proteins; involved in proteolysis

Proteosomes

361

The process of cutting or splicing proteins into their smaller peptide units

Proteolysis

362

Cellular organelle containing enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation; principal producer of the cellular energy source adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Mitochondria

363

Principal source of cellular energy; product of a chemical reaction between oxygen and nutrient products such as glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and enzymes

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

364

Rounded mass of protoplasm within the cytoplasm of a cell; surrounded by a nuclear envelope enclosing structures responsible for mitosis during cell division

Nucleus

365

Tubule and filament structures, contributing to cell shape, movement, and intracellular transport; composed of microtubules and thin, intermediate, and thick microfilaments

Cytoskeleton

366

Movement of particles from an area of high to lower concentration

Diffusion

367

Membrane passage between the extracellular and intracellular environment

Membrane pore

368

Movement of water across a concentration gradient; water movement to an area of higher concentration of particles (less water content) from an area of lower concentration of particles (more water content); regulated by the concentration of particles that do not diffuse across the semipermeable membrane

Osmosis

369

Force generated as water moves through the membrane by osmosis

Osmotic pressure

370

Assisted movement of substances across the cell membrane; not energy dependent

Facilitated diffusion

371

Difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell

Membrane potential

372

Energy-dependent transport of particles across the cell membrane against a gradient

Active transport

373

Active transport process requiring the direct use of energy in the form of ATP

Primary active transport

374

Active transport mechanism involving movement of a second substance; dependent on energy derived from the active transport of the primary substance

Secondary active transport

375

Substances transported together in the same direction

Cotransport or symport

376

Substances transported in the opposite direction

Countertransport or antiport

377

Particle entry into the cytoplasm through incorporation into a vesicle via a portion of the cell membrane

Ingest

378

Transport mechanism involving vesicular enclosure of particles from the extracellular environment into the cytoplasm for use by the cell

Endocytosis

379

ATP -requiring process of ingesting very small vesicles

Pinocytosis

380

Ingesting large particles such as cells, bacteria, and damaged cellular components

Phagocytosis

381

The process of the release of metabolic products from cells

Secreted

382

The process of movement of granules or particles out of the cell; fusion of the membrane surrounding the granule with the cell membrane, followed by rupture and release of contents

Exocytosis

383

The process of oxygen use as a source of energy for production of ATP and release of metabolic products from cells

Respiration

384

Regulatory mechanism; response of input to a system by generation of output in a given system

Feedback mechanisms

385

A cytoplasmic or cell surface protein molecule structured to bind specific factors

Receptor

386

Molecules that bind to specific receptors; involved in signal transduction

Ligands

387

Mechanism of cellular communication; initiated by binding of ligand to receptor and resulting in an action through subsequent communication events

Signal transduction pathway

388

Tightness or strength of ligand/receptor interaction

Binding affinity

389

Substances involved in cellular responses in the immediate area

Local mediators

390

Chemical substances, formed in a tissue or organ and carried in the blood, that stimulated or inhibit the growth or function of other tissues or organs

Hormones

391

The rapid generation of new daughter cells divided from progenitor (parent) cells

Proliferation

392

A process of changing the physical and functional properties of a cell to allow greater specificity and functionality to that cell

Differentiation

393

Alteration in function that allows cells, tissues, and organs to adjust to new conditions; survival due to the capacity to adjust to an adverse environment

Adaptation

394

Cessation of life; cessation of the integration of cellular, tissue, and organ functions

Death

395

Decrease in the size of the cell

Atrophy

396

Local response to decrease in blood supply

Ischemia

397

Decrease in the size of tissues and organs

Involution

398

Condition that results from disuse because of impaired neural innervation to muscle tissue

Spinal muscular atrophy

399

Increase in cell size

Hypertrophy

400

Related to growth

Trophic

401

Enlargement of lymphoepithelial adenoid tissue in the back of the nasal area

Adenoid hypertrophy

402

Increase in the number of cells

Hyperplasia

403

Permanent cessation of menses for a 12 month period

Menopause

404

Changing of one cell type to another

Metaplasia

405

Actual change in cell size, shape, uniformity, arrangement, and structure

Dysplasia

406

Change in genes or sequence of base pairs that make up the chromosomes; genetic alteration perpetuated in subsequent cellular divisions

Mutations

407

Condition in which cellular alterations lead to chronic, irreversible tissue changes in the respiratory tree of the lungs

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)

408

Potential source of cellular damage by exposure to reactive oxygen species

Oxidative stress

409

Programmed cell death that is prompted by a genetic signal and designed to replace old cells with new; also known as "cellular suicide"

Apoptosis

410

Fusion or incomplete separation of digit soft tissue

Syndactyly

411

Disorderly process of cell death associated with inflammation

Necrosis

412

Cellular damage from mechanical, thermal, or chemical sources

Physical injury

413

Damage caused by impact of a body part

Mechanical injury

414

Damage caused by extremes of temperature

Thermal injury

415

From within the body system

Endogenous

416

From the external environment

Exogenous

417

Damage caused by deprivation of oxygenation, hydration, and nutrition

Deficit injury

418

Toxic oxygen molecules or radicals that are formed by the reaction between oxygen and water during mitochondrial respiration

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)

419

Damage to cells resulting from reactive oxygen species

Free radical injury

420

Decrease in neuronal cell size and number leading to impaired neuronal communication and reduced brain tissue mass

Cerebral atrophy

421

A disease of cardiac muscle that results from excessive workload and functional demand

Cardiac hypertrophy

422

The expected distensibility, or expandability, of the lung tissue and chest wall

Compliance

423

Loss of consciousness; fainting

Syncope

424

Condition of hyperplasia prompted by hormone stimulation of excessive growth after closure of the epiphyseal growth plates of the long bones

Acromegaly

425

Long bone ossification site

Epiphyseal

426

Hormone secreted by the liver; promotes growth in bones, cartilage, soft tissues, and organs

Insulin-like growth factor 1

427

Benign tumor of glandular epithelial origin

Adenoma

428

Condition of hyperplasia characterized by excessive growth; growth hormone excess before the closure of the epiphyseal growth plates of the long bones

Gigantism

429

Epithelium consisting of a single flattened layer of cells

Squamous epithelium

430

Single layer of epithelial cells taller than they are wide

Columnar epithelium

431

Area between the external and internal cervical os; lined with columnar epithelium

Endocervical canal

432

Area of the merger of squamous and columnar epithelium; also known as the transformation zone of the cervix

Squamocolumnar junction

433

Area of the merger of the squamous and columnar epithelium; also known as the squamocolumnar junction of the cervix

Transformation zone

434

Outside of the cervix lined with squamous epithelium

Ectocervix

435

Nuclear genetic material made of DNA; condenses into chromosomes during mitosis

Chromatin

436

Invasive and destructive cellular growth, as in cancer

Malignancy

437

DNA virus; specific viral strains cause cutaneous and genital warts and severe cervical intraepithelial lesions

Human papilloma virus (HPV)

438

Cancer causing

Oncogenic

439

Active exposure to smoke

Mainstream smoke

440

Passive or secondhand smoke

Sidestream smoke

441

The rapid generation of new daughter cells divided from progenitor (parent) cells

Proliferation

442

A process of changing the physical and functional properties of a cell to allow greater specificity and functionality to that cell

Differentiation

443

Highly undifferentiated units that have the potential to divide into daughter stem cells, which can then mature into more differentiated units with a specific function

Stem cells

444

A term used to describe the origin, promotion, or development of cancerous neoplasms

Carcinogenesis

445

A term used to describe highly invasive and destructive neoplasms

Cancer

446

The process of starting with a single mutated cell and developing into cancer

Monoclonal origin

447

Genes that repair mutated DNA and protect the genome

Mutator genes

448

Genes that code for proteins involved in cell growth or regulation

Oncogenes

449

Genes that prohibit overproliferation of cells and regulate apoptosis

Tumor suppressor genes

450

"Normal" genes in the body with a vital role in regulating cell function; precursors to the development of oncogenes

Protooncogenes

451

A known cancer-causing agent

Carcinogen

452

A situation that causes a mutation in a cell

Initiating event

453

An expansion of a mutated cell's growth and reproduction; the continued growth of the cell depends on continued exposure to the promotor

Promoting event

454

An extension of the promotion phase with one exception: now the cancerous growth no longer depends on continued exposure to the promotor

Progression

455

The unregulated cell growth of neoplasms

Autonomy

456

A neoplasm's loss of differentiation

Anaplasia

457

Refers to hormone secretion from a site outside of an endocrine gland

Ectopic

458

Describes a tumor that remains localized and closely resembles the tissue of origin

Benign

459

Describes tumors that are invasive, destructive, spread to other sites, and do not resemble the tissue of origin

Malignant

460

The proliferation of the neoplasm within the tissue of origin

Local spread

461

A process of tumor cells moving into adjacent tissues and organs

Direct extension

462

A form of direct extension where neoplastic proliferation occurs within peritoneal and pleural cavities surrounding the affected tissue or organ

Seeding

463

Process that occurs when neoplasms are spread to distant sites often by way of the lymphatics or blood vessels

Metastases

464

A benign tumor of the squamous epithelium

Epithelioma

465

An epithelioma that presents as fingerlike projections

Papilloma

466

Benign tumor of glandular epithelial origin

Adenomas

467

Benign tumors that arise from germ cells

Teratomas

468

Tumor that arises from bone cells

Osteomas

469

Benign tumor that stems from chondrocytes

Chondromas

470

A malignant tumor of epithelial cells

Adenocarcinoma

471

A malignant tumor of chondrocytes

Chondrosarcoma

472

A unique term used to describe carcinomas that are confined to the epithelium and have not yet penetrated the basement membrane

Carcinoma in situ

473

A process of classifying the extent or spread of the disease from the site of origin

Staging

474

A process of differentiating the level of anaplasia depicted by the tumor

Grading

475

A syndrome of unexplained weight loss and tissue wasting related to the stimulation of inflammatory mediators, along with excess energy use, by the proliferating neoplastic cells

Cachexia

476

Substances that may be detected in cells or body fluids and can provide clues to the presence, extent, and treatment response of certain neoplasms

Tumor markers

477

Used to describe treating symptoms, such as pain, without curing the cancer

Palliative care

478

Mucosal epithelial depressions of the colon

Crypts

479

Hidden blood in the stool that is not visible

Occult

480

Visible blood in the stool

Frank

481

A procedure using an endoscope to perform direct visualization of the colon

Colonoscopy

482

Any immature cell

Blast cells

483

Episodes of nose bleeds

Epistaxis

484

Found in approximately 95% of those with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and represents a chromosome 9 and 22 translocation, which activates oncogenes

Philadelphia chromosome

485

A malignant disorder of the lymphoid tissue often characterized by the painless, progressive enlargement of cervical (neck) lymph nodes

Hodgkin lymphoma

486

Originates in the cell components of lymph nodes following a B lymphocyte lineage; is the neoplastic cell that is diagnostic for Hodgkin lymphoma

Reed-Sternberg cell

487

A generic classification made up of a broad range of B-cell and T-cell malignancies within the immune system

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma