Fundamentals Test #1 Notecards

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1

Pattern of health care in which a patient is treated for an acute episode of illness, for the sequelae of an accident or other trauma, or during recovery from surgery

Acute care

2

Facility for the supervised care of older adults; provides activities such as meals and socialization during specified day hours

Adult day care centers

3

Residential living facilities in which each resident has his or her own room and shares dining and social activity areas

Assisted living

4

Payment mechanism in which a provider receives a fixed amount of payment per enrollee

Capitation

5

Group of patients classified to establish a mechanism for health care reimbursement based on length of stay. Classification is based on the following variables: primary and secondary diagnosis, co-morbidities, primary and secondary procedures, and age

Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)

6

Activities directed toward identifying future proposed therapy and the need for additional resources before and after returning home

Discharge planning

7

Institution devoted to providing medical, nursing, or custodial care for an individual over a prolonged period such as during the course of a chronic disease or the rehabilitation phase after an acute illness

Extended care facility

8

Worldwide scope or application

Globalization

9

Health service provided in the patient's place of residence to promote, maintain, or restore health or minimize the effects of illness and disability

Home care

10

System of family-centered care designed to help terminally ill people be comfortable and maintain a satisfactory lifestyle throughout the terminal phase of their illness

Hospice

11

Managed care organization that contracts with physicians or health care providers who usually are members of groups and whose practices include fee-for-service and capitated patients

Independent practice association (IPA)

12

Set of providers and services organized to deliver a coordinated continuum of care to the population of patients served at a capitated cost

Integrated delivery networks (IDNs)

13

Health care system in which there is administrative control over primary health care services. Redundant facilities and services are eliminated, and costs are reduced. Preventive care and health education are emphasized.

Managed care

14

State medical assistance to people with low incomes, based on Title XIX of the Social Security Act. States receive matching federal funds to provide medical care and services to people meeting categorical and income requirements.

Medicaid

15

Federally funded national health insurance program in the US for people over 65 years of age. The program is administered in two parts. Part A provides basic protection against costs of medical, surgical, and psychiatric hospital care. Part B is a voluntary medical insurance program financed in part from federal funds and in part from premiums contributed by people enrolled in the program.

Medicare

16

Required by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, the MDS is a uniform data set established by the Department of Health and Human Services. It serves as the framework for any state-specified assessment instruments used to develop a written and comprehensive plan of care for newly admitted residents of nursing facilities.

Minimum Data Set (MDS)

17

"Uses information and technology to communicate, manage knowledge, mitigate error, and support decision-making"

Nursing informatics

18

Outcomes that are within the scope of nursing practice; consequences or effects of nursing interventions that result in changes in the patient's symptoms, functional status, safety, psychological distress, or costs.

Nursing-sensitive outcomes

19

Concept to improve work efficiency by changing the way that patient care is delivered.

Patient-centered care

20

Quality improvement program that rewards excellence through financial incentives to motivate change to achieve measurable improvements and improve patient care quality and safety.

Pay for performance

21

Combination of primary and public health care that is accessible to individuals and families in a community and provided at an affordable cost.

Primary health care

22

Focuses on evaluation of nursing care provided in a health care setting. The quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of nursing care for the patient are the focus of evaluation.

Professional standards review organization (PSROs)

23

Payment mechanism for reimbursing hospitals for inpatient health care services in which a predetermined rate is set for treatment of specific illnesses.

Prospective payment system (PPS)

24

Restoration of an individual to normal or near-normal function after a physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical addiction.

Rehabilitation

25

Method of classification for health care reimbursement for long-term care facilities.

Resource utilization groups (RUGs)

26

Short-term health services to dependent older adults either in their home or in an institutional setting.

Respite care

27

Health care settings and services in which patients who are recovering from illness or disability receive rehabilitation and supportive care.

Restorative care

28

Institution or part of an institution that meets criteria for accreditation established by the sections of the Social Security Act that determine the basis for Medicaid and Medicare reimbursement for skilled nursing care, including rehabilitation and various medical and nursing procedures.

Skilled nursing facility

29

Physician-supervised committees to review admissions, diagnostic testing, and treatments provided by physicians or health care providers to patients.

Utilization review (UR) committees

30

Collection of individuals who are more likely to develop health problems as a result of excess risks, limits in access to health care services, or being dependent on others for care.

Vulnerable populations

31

Formal process used to analyze the work of a certain work group and change the actual structure of the jobs performed.

Work redesign

32

Beliefs and attitudes associating negative permanent characteristics to people who are perceived as different from oneself.

Bias

33

Systematically developed statements about a plan of care for a specific set of clinical circumstances involving a specific patient population.

Clinical guidelines

34

Act of keeping information private or secret; in health care the nurse only shares information about a patient with other nurses or health care providers who need to know private information about a patient to provide care for him or her; information can only be shared with the patient's consent.

Confidentiality

35

Data gathered through the use of observations and assessments and use the data to discover new knowledge.

Empirical data

36

A form of quantitative research that determines how well a program, practice, procedure, or policy is working.

Evaluation research

37

Use of current best evidence from nursing research, clinical expertise, practice trends, and patient preferences to guide nursing decisions about care provided to patients.

Evidence-based practice (EBP)

38

Predictions about the relationship or difference between study variables.

Hypotheses

39

Process of obtaining permission from a patient to perform a specific test or procedure after describing all risks, side effects, and benefits.

Informed consent

40

A way to identify new knowledge, improve professional education and practice, and use resources effectively.

Nursing research

41

One reviewed by a panel of experts familiar with the topic or subject matter of the article before it was published.

Peer-reviewed

42

When an organization analyzes and evaluates current performance and uses to results to develop focused improvement actions.

Performance improvement (PI)

43

P: Patient population of interest
I: Intervention of interest
C: Comparison of interest
O: Outcome
T: Time

Example: Do patients who have had abdominal surgery (P) and who rock in a rocking chair (I) have a reduced incidence of postoperative ileus (O) during hospitalization (T) when compared with patients who receive standard nursing care following surgery (C)?

PICOT question

44

The study of phenomena that are difficult to quantify or categorize such as patients' perceptions of illness.

Qualitative nursing research

45

Monitoring and evaluation of processes and outcomes in health care or any other business to identify opportunities for improvement.

Quality improvement (QI)

46

The study of nursing phenomena that offers precise measurement and quantification.

Quantitative nursing research

47

An orderly series of steps that allow a researcher to move from asking the research question to finding the answer.

Research process

48

Codified sequence of steps used in the formulation, testing, evaluation, and reporting of scientific ideas.

Scientific method

49

Concepts, characteristics, or traits that vary within or among subjects.

Variables

50

Activities that depend on the patient's motivation to adopt a specific health program.

Active strategies of health promotion

51

Illness characterized by symptoms that are of relatively short duration, are usually severe, and affect the functioning of the patient in all dimensions

Acute illness

52

Illness that persists over a long time and affects physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual functioning

Chronic illness

53

Dynamic state in which individuals adapt to their internal and external environments so there is a state of physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual well-being

Health

54

Conceptual framework that describes a person's health behavior as an expression of his or her health beliefs

Health belief model

55

Activities such as routine exercise and good nutrition that help patients maintain or enhance their present level of health and reduce their risk of developing certain diseases

Health promotion

56

Attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health; in this model, nurses using the nursing process consider patients to be the ultimate experts concerning their own health and respect patients' subjective experience as relevant in maintaining health or assisting in healing

Holistic health model

57

(1) Abnormal process in which any aspect of a person's functioning is diminished or impaired compared with his or her previous condition
(2) The personal, interpersonal, and cultural reaction to disease

Illness

58

Ways in which people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the health care system

Illness behavior

59

Health education programs or activities directed toward protecting patients from threats or potential threats to health and minimizing risk factors

Illness prevention

60

Activities that involve the patient as the recipient of actions by health care professionals

Passive strategies of health promotion

61

First contact in a given episode of illness that leads to a decision regarding a course of action to prevent worsening of the health problem

Primary prevention

62

Any internal or external variable that makes a person or group more vulnerable to illness or an unhealthy event

Risk factor

63

Level of preventative medicine that focuses on early diagnosis, use of referral services, and rapid initiation of treatment to stop the progress of disease processes

Secondary prevention

64

Activities directed toward rehabilitation rather than diagnosis and treatment

Tertiary prevention

65

Dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimum balance between internal and external environments

Wellness

66

Universal phenomenon that influences the way we think, feel, and behave in relation to one another

Caring

67

Acts toward another individual that display both an emotional and physical calm. The use of touch, establishing presence, the therapeutic use of silence, and the skillful and gentle performance of a procedure are examples.

Comforting

68

Delivery of health care based on ethical principles and standards of care

Ethic of care

69

Deep physical, psychological, and spiritual connection or engagement between a nurse and patient

Presence

70

Concept of care extending across cultures that distinguishes nursing from other health disciplines

Transcultural

71

When the relationship influences both the nurse and the patient for better or for worse

Transformative

72

How our physical bodies grow and change

Biophysical development

73

The person sees moral reasoning based on his or her own personal internalization of societal and others' expectations

Conventional reasoning

74

Theory that states individuals need to accomplish a particular task before successfully mastering the stage and progressing to the next one

Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

75

Theory that states individuals go through five stages of psychosexual development and that each stage is characterized by sexual pleasure in parts of the body: the mouth, the anus, and the genitals

Freud's psychoanalytical model of personality development

76

Theory that expands on Piaget's cognitive theory; includes six stages of moral development under three levels

Kohlberg's theory of moral development

77

Theory that includes four periods that are related to age and demonstrate specific categories of knowing and understanding

Piaget's theory of cognitive development

78

When the person finds a balance between basic human rights and obligations and societal rules and regulations

Postconventional reasoning

79

A behavioral style that affects an individual's emotional interactions with others

Temperament

80

Inflammatory, papulopustular skin eruption, usually occurring on the face, neck, shoulders, and upper back

Acne

81

Partial or complete loss of hair; baldness

Alopecia

82

Cavities

Caries

83

Yellowish or brownish waxy secretion produced by sweat glands in the external ear

Cerumen

84

Bath in which the entire body of a patient is washed in bed

Complete bed bath

85

Abnormal destructive condition in a tooth caused by a complex interaction of food, especially starches and sugars, with bacteria that form dental plaque

Dental caries

86

Without teeth

Edentulous

87

Long, slow, gliding strokes of a massage

Effleurage

88

Removal

Enucleation

89

Outer layer of the skin that has several thin layers in different stages of maturation; shields and protects the underlying tissues from water loss, mechanical or chemical injury, and penetration by disease-causing microorganisms

Epidermis

90

Inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis

91

Inflamed tongue

Glossitis

92

Foul-smelling breath

Halitosis

93

Painful inflammation of oral mucous membranes

Mucositis

94

Bath in which body parts that might cause the patient discomfort if left unbathed are washed in bed

Partial bed bath

95

Head lice

Pediculosis capitis

96

Procedure described for cleaning the genital and anal areas as part of the daily bath or after various obstetrical and gynecological procedures

Perineal care

97

Causes burning, pain, and change in food and fluid tolerance

Stomatitis

98

Dry mouth

Xerostomia

99

Scraping or rubbing away of epidermis; may result in localized bleeding and later weeping of serous fluid

Abrasion

100

To come close together, as in the edges of a wound

Approximated

101

Occurs when the normal red tones of the light-skinned patient are absent

Blanching

102

A tough, fibrous protein

Collagen

103

Removal of dead tissue from a wound

Debridement

104

Separation of the edges of a wound, revealing underlying tissues

Dehiscence

105

Convenient portable units that connect to tubular drains lying within a wound bed and exert a safe, constant, low-pressure vacuum to remove and collect drainage

Drainage evacuators

106

Thick layer of dead, dry tissue that covers a pressure ulcer or thermal burn. It may be allowed to be sloughed off naturally, or it may need to be surgically removed.

Eschar

107

Protrusion of visceral organs through a surgical wound

Evisceration

108

Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been discharged from cells or blood vessels slowly through small pores or breaks in cell membranes

Exudate

109

Effects of rubbing or the resistance that a moving body meets from the surface on which it moves; a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement

Friction

110

Soft, pink, fleshy projections of tissue that form during the healing process in a wound not healing by primary intention

Granulation tissue

111

Collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the skin or an organ

Hematoma

112

Bleeding from a wound site

Hemorrhage

113

Termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or the coagulation process of the body

Hemostasis

114

Hardening of a tissue, particularly the skin, because of edema or inflammation

Induration

115

Torn, jagged wound

Laceration

116

Inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony prominence

Pressure ulcer

117

Primary union of the edges of a wound, progressing to complete scar formation without granulation

Primary intention

118

A type of wound drainage that is thick; yellow, green, tan, or brown

Purulent

119

Bleed in relation to the depth and size of the wound

Puncture

120

A type of wound drainage that is bright red; indicates active bleeding

Sanguineous

121

Wound closure in which the edges are separated; granulation tissue develops to fill the gap; and finally, epithelium grows in over the granulation, producing a larger scar than results with primary intention

Secondary intention

122

A type of wound drainage that is pale, pink, watery; mixture of clear and red fluid

Serosanguineous

123

A type of wound drainage that is clear, watery plasma

Serous

124

Force exerted against the skin while the skin remains stationary and the bony structures move

Shearing force

125

Threads or metal used to sew body tissues together

Sutures

126

Point at which tissues receive insufficient oxygen and perfusion

Tissue ischemia

127

A device that assists in wound closure by applying localized negative pressure to draw the edges of a wound together

Vaccumm-assisted closure (VAC)

128

A disruption of the integrity and function of tissues in the body

Wound

129

Irregular, short contractions

Braxton Hicks contractions

130

Physiological, developmental change that occurs in the male reproductive system between the ages of 45 and 60.

Climacteric

131

A support person to be present during labor to assist women who have no other source of support

Doula

132

A prolonged time to conceive

Infertility

133

Breastfeeding

Lactation

134

Physiological cessation of ovulation and menstruation that typically occurs during middle adulthood in women

Menopause

135

The routine examination of the pregnant woman by an obstetrician or advanced practice nurse such as a nurse practitioner or certified nurse midwife.

Prenatal care

136

A period of approximately 6 weeks after delivery.

Puerperium

137

Group of people who begin to help aging parents while being responsible for their own children.

Sandwich generation

138

Theory that considers the continuation of activities performed during middle age as necessary for successful aging.

Activity theory

139

Discrimination against people of increasing age, just as people who are racists and sexists discriminate because of skin color and gender.

Ageism

140

Theory that suggests that personality remains stable and behavior becomes more predictable as people age.

Continuity theory (developmental theories)

141

Acute state of confusion that is potentially reversible and often has a physical cause

Delirium

142

Generalized impairment of intellectual functioning that interferes with social and occupational functioning

Dementia

143

Reduction in happiness and well-being that contributes to physical and social limitations and complicates the treatment of concomitant medical conditions. It is usually reversible with treatment.

Depression

144

The oldest psychology theory; theory that states that aging individuals withdraw from customary roles and engage in more introspective, self-focused activities.

Disengagement theory

145

Theory that proposes that the older adult experiences a shift in perspective with age.

Gerotranscendence

146

Study of all aspects of the aging process and its consequences

Gerontology

147

Theories that view aging as the result of genetically programmed physiological mechanisms within the body that control the process of aging.

Nonstochastic theories

148

Therapeutic modality for restoring an individual's sense of the present

Reality orientation

149

Recalling the past to assign new meaning to past experiences

Reminiscence

150

Theories that view aging as the result of random cellular damage that occurs over time.

Stochastic theories

151

An alternative approach to communication with a confused older adult.

Validation therapy

152

Require oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease

Aerobic

153

Thrive where little or no free oxygen is available

Anaerobic

154

Absence of germs or microorganisms

Asepsis

155

When clinical signs and symptoms are not present

Asymptomatic

156

A temperature or chemical that destroys bacteria

Bactericidal

157

Presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion of damage

Colonization

158

Any disease that can be transmitted from one person or animal to another by direct or indirect contact or by vectors

Communicable diseases

159

Process of destroying all pathogenic organisms except spores

Disinfection

160

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues

Edema

161

Infections produced within a cell or organism

Endogenous infection

162

Cause and effect

Epidemiology

163

Infection originating outside an organ or part

Exogenous infection

164

Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been discharged from cells or blood vessels slowly through small pores or breaks in cell membranes

Exudates

165

Soft, pink, fleshy projections of tissue that form during the healing process in a wound not healing by primary intention

Granulation tissue

166

Includes using an instant alcohol hand antiseptic before and after providing patient care, washing hands with soap and water when they are visibly soiled, and performing a surgical scrub

Hand hygiene

167

The act of washing hands with soap and water followed by rinsing under a stream of water for 15 seconds

Handwashing

168

Infection that was not present or incubating at the time of admission to a health care setting

Health care-associated infections (HAIs)

169

A type of HAI from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure

Iatrogenic infections

170

Having an impaired immune system

Immunocompromised

171

Invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms that reproduce and multiply

Infection

172

An increase in the number of circulating WBCs

Leukocytosis

173

Procedures used to reduce the number of microorganisms and prevent their spread

Medical asepsis

174

Microscopic entities such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi that are capable of carrying on living processes

Microorganisms

175

Of or pertaining to the death of tissue in response to disease or injury

Necrotic

176

Do not usually cause disease when residing in their usual area of the body but instead participate in maintaining health

Normal floras

177

Microorganisms capable of producing disease

Pathogens

178

A process that involves the destruction and absorption of bacteria

Phagocytosis

179

Containing WBCs and bacteria

Purulent

180

Place where microorganisms survive, multiply, and await transfer to a susceptible host

Reservoir

181

Containing red blood cells

Sanguineous

182

Clear, like plasma

Serous

183

Guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne and other pathogens in hospitals

Standard precautions

184

An area free of microorganisms and prepared to receive sterile items

Sterile field

185

(1) Rendering a person unable to produce children; accomplished by surgical, chemical, or other means (2) A technique for destroying microorganisms using heat, water, chemicals, or gases

Sterilization

186

Secondary infection usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen

Suprainfection

187

Procedures used to eliminate any microorganisms from an area. Also called sterile technique.

Surgical asepsis

188

Pus-forming

Suppurative

189

If the pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms

Symptomatic

190

Ability of an organism to rapidly produce disease

Virulence

191

Process of adapting to and adopting a new culture

Acculturation

192

To become absorbed into another culture and adopt its characteristics

Assimilation

193

Occurs when an individual identifies equally with two or more cultures

Biculturalism

194

Kinship that extends to both the mother's and father's sides of the family

Bilineal

195

Integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious, or social groups

Culture

196

Adapting or negotiating with the patient/families to achieve beneficial or satisfying health outcomes

Cultural care accommodation or negotiation

197

Retaining and/or preserving relevant care values so patients are able to maintain their well-being, recover from illness, or face handicaps and/or death

Cultural care preservation or maintenance

198

Reordering, changing, or greatly modifying a patient's/family's customs for a new, different, and beneficial health care pattern

Cultural care repatterning or restructuring

199

Process in which the health care professional continually strives to achieve the ability and availability to work effectively with individuals, families, and communities

Cultural competence

200

Using one's own values and customs as an absolute guide in interpreting behaviors

Cultural imposition

201

Feeling that a patient has after a health care worker disregards the patient's valued way of life

Cultural pain

202

Care that fits people's valued life patterns and sets of meanings generated from the people themselves. Sometimes this differs from the professionals' perspective on care

Culturally congruent care

203

Illnesses restricted to a particular culture or group because of its psychosocial characteristics

Culture-bound syndrome

204

Insider or native perspective

Emic worldview

205

Shared identity related to social and cultural heritage such as values, language, geographical space, and racial characteristics

Ethnicity

206

Significant historical experiences of a particular group

Ethnohistory

207

Tendency to hold one's own way of life as superior to that of others

Ethnocentrism

208

Outsider's perspective

Etic worldview

209

Nonblood kin; considered family in some collective cultures

Fictive

210

Kinship that is limited to only the mother's side

Matrilineal

211

Attribute illness to natural, impersonal, and biological forces that cause alteration in the equilibrium of the human body

Naturalistic practitioners

212

Kinship that is limited to only the father's side

Patrilineal

213

Believe that an external agent, which can be human or nonhuman, causes health and illness

Personalistic practitioners

214

Various ethnic, religious, and other groups with distinct characteristics from the dominant culture

Subcultures

215

Distinct discipline developed by Leininger that focuses on the comparative study of cultures to understand similarities and differences among groups of people

Transcultural nursing

216

Group of interacting individuals composing a basic unit of society

Family

217

Nursing perspective in which the family is viewed as a unit of interacting members having attributes, functions, and goals separate from those of the individual family members

Family as context

218

Nursing approach that takes into consideration the effect of one intervention on all members of a family

Family as patient

219

A family process that occurs in response to an illness and encompasses multiple cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal processes

Family caregiving

220

Patterns of people considered by family members to be included in the family

Family forms

221

Acknowledging the importance of the capability of care recipients to share exchanges that contribute to a caregiver's perception of self-worth

Reciprocity

222

Organic compound of one or more basic groups and one or more carboxyl groups; building blocks that construct proteins and the end products of protein digestion

Amino acid

223

Constructive metabolism characterized by conversion of simple substances into more complex compounds of living matter

Anabolism

224

Ill or debilitated patients that have poor appetites

Anorexia

225

Measurement of various body parts to determine nutritional and caloric status, muscular development, brain growth, and other parameters

Anthropometry

226

Amount of energy used in a unit of time by a fasting, resting subject to maintain vital functions

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

227

Measures weight corrected for height and serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships

Body mass index (BMI)

228

Dietary classification of foods compromising sugars, starches, cellulose, and gum

Carbohydrates

229

Breakdown of body tissue into simpler substances

Catabolism

230

An acidic, liquefied mass that used to be food

Chyme

231

Information on each vitamin or mineral to reflect a range of minimum-to-maximum amounts that avert deficiency or toxicity

Dietary reference intakes (DRIs)

232

Amino acids that are synthesized by the body

Dispensable amino acids

233

Difficulty swallowing; commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus

Dysphagia

234

Provision of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract when the patient cannot ingest, chew, or swallow food but can digest and absorb nutrients

Enteral nutrition (EN)

235

The proteinlike substances that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions

Enzymes

236

Vitamins stored in the fatty compartments of the body

Fat-soluble vitamins

237

Composed of chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an acid group on one end of the chain and a methyl group at the other

Fatty acids

238

A polysaccharide that is the structural part of plants that is not broken down by the human digestive enzymes

Fiber

239

All members of a household have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy lifestyle

Food security

240

Formation of glucose or glycogen from substances that are not carbohydrates such as protein or lipid

Gluconeogenesis

241

Process of storing glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver

Glycogenesis

242

Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, and water

Glycogenolysis

243

Provides an estimate of what a person should weigh

Ideal body weight (IBW)

244

Type of amino acid that the body does not synthesize thus need to be provided in the diet

Indispensable amino acids

245

Soybean or safflower oil-based solutions that are isotonic and may be infused with amino acid and dextrose solution through a central or peripheral line

Intravenous fat emulsions

246

Compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents

Lipids

247

When the daily requirement is 100 mg or more

Macrominerals

248

The use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT)

249

Aggregate of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms and result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of wastes, and other functions concerned with the distribution of nutrients in the blood after digestion

Metabolism

250

Inorganic elements essential to the body because of their role as catalysts in biochemical reactions

Minerals

251

Fatty acid in which some of the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are joined by double or triple bonds; have only one double or triple bond per molecule and are found as components of fats in such foods as fowls, almonds, pecans, cashew nuts, peanuts, and olive oil

Monosaturated fatty acid

252

Fatty acids that have one double bond

Monounsaturated fatty acid

253

Achieved when the intake and output of nitrogen are equal

Nitrogen balance

254

The proportion of essential nutrients to the number of kilocalories

Nutrient density

255

Foods that contain elements necessary for body function, including water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals

Nutrients

256

Administration of a nutritional solution into the vascular system

Parenteral nutrition (PN)

257

Rhythmical contractions of the intestine that propel gastric contents through the length of the GI tract

Peristalsis

258

Fatty acid that has two or more carbon double bonds

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

259

The amount of energy that an individual needs to consume over a 24 hour period for the body to maintain all of its internal working activities while at rest

Resting energy expenditure (REE)

260

Carbohydrate units

Saccharides

261

Fatty acid in which each carbon in the chain has an attached hydrogen atom

Saturated fatty acids

262

When the daily requirement is less than 100 mg

Trace elements

263

Circulate in the blood and are composed of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol

Triglycerides

264

Fatty acid in which an unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached and the carbon atoms attach to one another with a double bond

Unsaturated fatty acids

265

The consumption of a diet consisting predominantly of plant foods

Vegetarianism

266

Organic compounds essential in small quantities for normal physiological and metabolic functioning of the body. With few exceptions, vitamins cannot by synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the diet or dietary supplements

Vitamins

267

Vitamin C and the B complex (which is eight vitamins)

Water-soluble vitamins

268

When no urine is produced

Anuria

269

Presence of bacteria in the urine

Bacteriuria

270

Introduction of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to inject or remove fluid

Catheterization

271

An irritated bladder

Cystitis

272

Increased rate of formation and excretion of urine

Diuresis

273

Painful urination resulting from bacterial infection of the bladder and obstructive conditions of the urethra

Dysuria

274

Functions within the bone marrow to stimulate RBC production and maturation and prolongs the life of mature RBCs

Erythropoietin

275

Abnormal presence of blood in the urine

Hematuria

276

Common bladder complaint that occurs more frequently with aging and includes the symptoms of urgency, frequency, nocturia, and urge incontinence

Hyperactive/overactive bladder

277

Urination; act of passing or expelling urine voluntarily through the urethra

Micturition

278

Structural and functional units of the kidney containing renal glomeruli and tubules

Nephron

279

When a tube is placed directly into the renal pelvis when a certain patient needs urinary drainage directly from one or both kidneys

Nephrostomy

280

Urination at night; can be a symptom of renal disease or may occur in persons who drink excessive amounts of fluids before bedtime

Nocturia

281

Nighttime voiding without awakening

Nocturnal enuresis

282

A urine output that is decreased despite normal intake

Oliguria

283

Occurs when a bladder is overly full and bladder pressure exceeds sphincter pressure, resulting in involuntary leakage of urine

Overflow incontinence

284

Exercises that improve the strength of pelvic floor muscles and consist of repetitive contractions of muscle groups

Pelvic floor exercises (Kegel exercises)

285

An excessive output of urine

Polyuria

286

Presence in the urine of abnormally large quantities of protein, usually albumin; usually a sign of renal disease or renal complications of another disease, hypertension, or heart failure

Proteinuria

287

When infection spreads to the upper urinary tract (kidneys)

Pyelonephritis

288

Condition that causes loss of voluntary control of urination

Reflex incontinence

289

Calcium stone in the renal pelvis

Renal calculus

290

Aggressive treatments to treat uremic syndrome that are necessary for survival

Renal replacement therapy

291

Proteolytic enzyme produced by and stored in the juxtaglomerular apparatus that surrounds each arteriole as it enters a glomerulus; the enzyme affects the blood pressure by catalyzing the change of angiotensinogen to angiotensin, a strong response

Renin

292

Volume of urine remaining in the bladder after a normal voiding; the bladder normally is almost completely empty after micturition

Residual urine

293

The weight or degree of concentration of a substance compared with an equal volume of water

Specific gravity

294

Artificially created opening between a body cavity and the surface of the body

Stoma

295

A syndrome that is characterized by an increase in nitrogenous wastes in the blood, marked fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, nausea, vomiting, headache, coma, and convulsions

Uremic syndrome

296

A type of urinary incontinence that results from sudden, involuntary contraction of the muscles of the urinary bladder, resulting in an urge to urinate

Urge incontinence

297

Surgical diversion of the drainage of urine such as a ureterostomy

Urinary diversion

298

Inability to control urination

Urinary incontinence

299

Retention of urine in the bladder; condition frequently caused by a temporary loss of muscle function

Urinary retention

300

Organisms in the bloodstream

Urosepsis

301

A program that helps some patients defecate normally, especially those who still have some neuromuscular control

Bowel training

302

Drugs that act to promote bowel evacuation

Cathartics

303

A common causative agent of diarrhea

Clostridium difficile

304

When surgical openings are created in the colon

Colostomy

305

Condition characterized by difficulty in passing stool or an infrequent passage of hard stool

Constipation

306

Increase in the number of stools and the passage of liquid, unformed feces

Diarrhea

307

Stool discharged from the stoma

Effluent

308

Procedure involving introduction of a solution into the rectum for cleansing or therapeutic purposes

Enema

309

Measures microscopic amounts of blood in the feces

Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)

310

When gas accumulates in the lumen of the intestines and when the bowel wall stretches and distends

Flatulence

311

Permanent dilation and engorgement of veins within the lining of the rectum

Hemorrhoids

312

When surgical openings are created in the ileum

Ileostomy

313

The inability to control passage of feces and gas from the anus

Incontinence

314

Drugs that act to promote bowel evacuation

Laxatives

315

Usually temporary paralysis of intestinal wall that may occur after abdominal surgery or peritoneal injury and that causes cessation of peristalsis; leads to abdominal distention and symptoms of obstruction

Paralytic ileus

316

Artificially created opening between a body cavity and the surface of the body

Stoma

317

Any forced expiratory effort against a closed airway such as when an individual holds his or her breath and tightens his or her muscles in a concerted, strenuous effort to move a heavy object or change positions in bed

Valsalva maneuver

318

A nurse specially educated to care for ostomy patients

Wound ostomy continence nurse (WOCN)

319

A bright light, smell, or taste

Aura

320

A federal agency responsible for the enforcement of federal regulations regarding the manufacture, processing, and distribution of foods, drugs, and cosmetics to protect consumers against the sale of impure or dangerous substances

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

321

Process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented

Immunization

322

Microorganisms capable of producing disease

Pathogen