Fundamentals 44 Nutrition
All household members have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food.
_________ is the energy needed to maintain life sustaining activities for a specific period of time at rest.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Elements that are necessary for the normal function of numerous body processes.
The proportion of essential nutrients to the number of kilocalories.
_______ are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It's the main source of energy in the diet.
_________ such as glucose (dextrose) or fructose cannot be broken down into a more basic carbohydrate unit.
__________ such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose are composed of two monosaccharides and water.
Both monosaccharides and disaccharides are classified as __________ and are found primarily in sugars.
___________ such as glycogen are made up of many carbohydrate units. They are insoluble in water and digested in varying degrees. Example is starches.
________ is a polysaccharide that is the structural part of plants that is not broken down by the human digestive enzymes.
_______ provide a source of energy, are essential for synthesis of body tissue in growth, maintenance, and repair. Ingestion of this maintains nitrogen balance.
The simplest form of protein and is made up of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.
The body does not synthesize _______________.
indispensable amino acids
The body synthesizes ___________. Examples are alanine, asparagine, and glutamic acid.
dispensable amino acid
_______________ is achieved when the intake and output of nitrogen are equal.
_______ are the most calorie-dense nutrient and are composed of triglycerides and fatty acids.
Water makes up 60% - 70% of total body weight.
Organic substances present in small amounts in foods that are essential to normal metabolism.
Inorganic elements essential to the body as a catalysts in biochemical reactions.
________ are the protein like substances that act as a catalysts to speed up chemical reactions. They are an essential part of the chemistry of digestion.
Swallowed food enters the esophagus and wavelike muscular contractions, _______________, move the food to the base of the esophagus above the cardiac sphincter.
The __________ is the primary absorption site for nutrients. It is lined with finger like projections called villi.
Approximately 85% - 90% of water is absorbed in the small intestine.
________ refers to all of the biochemical reactions within the cells of the body.
_________ is the building of more complex biochemical substances by synthesis of nutrients.
_________ is the break down of biochemical substances into simpler substances and occurs during physiological states of negative nitrogen balance.
An energy-dependent process whereby particles move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. A special carrier moves the particle across the cell membrane.
The force by which particles move outward from an area of greater concentration to lesser concentration. The particles do NOT need a special carrier to move outward in all directions.
Movement of water through a membrane that separates solutions of different concentrations. Water moves to equalize the concentration pressures on both sides of the membrane.
Engulfing of large molecules of nutrients by the absorbing cell when the molecule attaches to the absorbing cell membrane.
______________ present evidence based criteria for an acceptable range of amounts of vitamins and nutrients for each gender and age group.
Dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
________ provides an estimate of what a person should weigh.
Ideal body weight (IBW)
__________ measures weight corrected for height and serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships.
Body mass index (BMI)
______ refers to difficulty swallowing.
Ingestion of a diet balanced with carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals provide the essential nutrients to carry out the normal physiological functioning of the body throughout the life span.
Through digestion food is broken down into its simplest form for absorption. Digestion and absorption occur mainly in the small intestine.
Guidelines for dietary change recommend reduced fat, saturated fat, sodium, refined sugar, and cholesterol and increased intake of complex carbohydrates and fiber.
Because improper nutrition affects all body systems, nutritional assessment includes a review of total physical assessment.
Enteral feedings are for patients who are unable to ingest food but are able to digest and absorb food in the gastrointestinal tract.
EN protects intestinal structure and function and enhances immunity.
TPN supplies essential nutrients in appropriate amounts to support life through the administration of a concentrated nutrient solution into the superior vena cava near the right atrium of the heart.
MNT is a recognized treatment modality for both acute and chronic disease states.
One of the most important responsibilities of a nurse administering enteral feedings is to take precautions to prevent patients from aspirating feeding formula.
Special diets alter the composition, texture, digestibility, and residue of foods to suit the patient's particular needs.
Which statement made by an adult patient demonstrates understanding of healthy nutrition teaching?
I will make sure that I eat a balanced diet and exercise regularly.
The nurse teaches a patient who has had surgery to increase which nutrient to help with tissue repair?
The nurse is caring for a patient experiencing dysphagia. Which interventions help decrease the risk of aspiration during feeding?
Sit the patient upright in a chair.
Place food in the strong side of the mouth.
Feed the patient slowly, allowing time to chew and swallow.
The nurse suspects that the patient receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) through a central venous catheter (CVC) has an air embolus. What action does the nurse need to take first?
Turn patient to left lateral decubitus position.
Which action is initially taken by the nurse to verify correct position of a newly placed small bore feeding tube?
Placing an order for x-ray film examination to check position.
The catheter of the patient receiving parenteral nutrition becomes occluded. List the steps the nurse would perform for caring for the occluded catheter.
1. Temporarily stop the infusion.
2. Flush the line with saline or heparin.
3. Attempt to aspirate a clot.
4. Use a thrombolytic agent if ordered or per protocol.
Based on knowledge of peptic ulcer disease, the nurse anticipates the presence of which bacteria when reviewing the laboratory data for a patient suspected of having PUD?
The nurse is assessing a patient receiving enteral feedings via a small bore nasogastric tube. Which assessment findings need further intervention?
Gastric residual aspirate of 350 mL for the second consecutive time.
The home care nurse is seeing the following patients. Which patient is at greatest risk for experiencing inadequate nutrition?
A recently widowed 76 year old woman recovering from a stroke.
The nurse is checking the feeding tube placement. Place the steps in the correct order.
1. Perform hand hygiene and put on clean gloves.
2. Flush tube with 30 mL of air.
3. Draw 5 - 10 mL gastric aspirate into syringe.
4. Observe color of gastric aspirate.
5. Mix aspirate in syringe and place in medicine cup.
6. Dip pH strip into gastric aspirate.
7. Compare strip with color chart from manufacturer.
Which statement made by a patient of a 2 month old infant requires further education?
I'm going to alternate formula with whole milk starting next month.
The nurse is teaching a program on healthy nutrition at the senior community center. Which points should be included in the program for older adults?
Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice which impairs drug absorption.
Take a multivitamin that includes vitamin D for bone health.
Cheese and eggs are a good source of protein.
The nurse sees the nursing assistive personnel (NAP) perform the following for a patient receiving continuous enteral feedings. What intervention does the nurse need to address immediately with the NAP?
Places the patient supine while giving a bath.
The patient receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) asks the nurse why his blood glucose is being checked since he does not have diabetes. What is the best response by the nurse?
TPN can cause hyperglycemia and it is important to keep your blood glucose level in an acceptable range.
The nurse is performing blood glucose monitoring for a patient receiving parenteral nutrition. Place the steps of the procedure in the correct sequence.
1. Assess area of skin to be used as puncture site.
2. Identify patient using two identifiers.
3. Check code test on vial strip.
4. Clean puncture site with antiseptic solution.
5. Gently squeeze fingertip until drop of blood appears.
6. Wick blood drop into test strip.
7. Read results and document in medical record.