Pharmacologic Principles

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Key terms from Chapter 2 of Pharmacology & The Nursing Process
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pharmacology
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1

Additive effects

The drugs work separately, pairing them does not increase their overall effect. 1+1 = 2... The effect is the same as if giving them alone, giving two of them = 2, not anything more.

2

Adverse drug event

Any undesirable occurrence related to administering or failing to administer a prescribed medication

3

Adverse drug reaction

Any unexpected, unintended, undesired, or excessive response to a medication given at therapeutic dosages (as opposed to overdose)

4

Adverse effects

A general term for any undesirable effects that are a direct response to one or more drugs

5

Agonist

A drug that binds to and stimulates the activity of one or more receptors in the body

6

Allergic reaction

An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication; a type of adverse drug event

7

Antagonist

A drug that binds to and inhibits the activity of one or more receptors in the body, A.K.A. inhibitors

8

Bioavailability

A measure of the extent of drug absorption for a given drug and route (from 0%-100%)

9

Biotransformation

One or more biochemical reactions involving a parent drug. Biotransformation occurs mainly in the liver and produces a metabolite that is either inactive or active, A.K.A. metabolism

10

Chemical name

The name that describes the chemical composition and molecular structure of a drug

11

Contraindication

Any condition, especially one related to a disease state or patient characteristic, including current or recent drug therapy, that renders a particular form of treatment improper or undesirable

12

Dependence

A state in which there is a compulsive or chronic need, as for a drug

13

Dissolution

The process by which solid form of drugs disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract and become soluble before being absorbed into the circulation

14

Drug actions

The processes involved in the interaction between a drug and body cells (like how a drug acts with a receptor protein).. A.K.A. the mechanism of action

15

Drug effects

The physiologic reactions of the body to a drug. They can be therapeutic or toxic and describe how the whole body is affected by the drug. Terms like onset, peak, and duration are used to describe drug effects (usually in terms of therapeutic effects)

16

Drug-induced teratogenesis

The development of congenital anomalies or defects in the developing fetus caused by the toxic effects of drugs

17

First-pass effect

The initial metabolism in the liver of a drug absorbed from the GI tract before the drug reaches systemic circulation through the bloodstream

18

Generic name

Much shorter and simpler than the chemical name and is NOT protected by trademark.

19

Half-life

In pharmacokinetics, the time required for half of an administered dose of drug to be eliminated by the body, or the time it takes for the blood level of a drug to be reduced by 50%

20

Idiosyncratic reaction

An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient

21

Incompatibility

The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed/given together that results in deterioration of at least one of the drugs

22

Onset of action

The time required for a drug to elicit a therapeutic response after dosing

23

Peak effect

The time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response in the body

24

Peak level

The maximum concentration of a drug in the body after administration

25

Pharmaceutics

The science of preparing and dispensing drugs, including dosage form design

26

Pharmacodynamics

The study of the biochemical and physiologic interactions of drugs at their sites of activity.

27

Pharmacognosy

The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources

28

Pharmacokinetics

The study of what happens to a drug from the time it is put into the body until the parent drug and all metabolites have left the body. Pharmacokinetics represent the drug absorption into, distribution and metabolism within, and excretion from the body

29

Pharmacology

The broadest term for the study or science of drugs

30

Pharmacotherapeutics

The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs

31

Prodrug

An inactive drug dosage form that is converted to an active metabolite by various biochemical reactions once it is inside the body

32

Receptor

A molecular structure within or on the outer surface of a cell. Receptors bind specific substances (I.e. drug molecules) and one or more corresponding cellular effects (drug actions) occurs as a result of this drug-receptor interaction

33

Steady state

The physiologic state in which the amount of drug removed via elimination is equal to the amount of drug absorbed with each dose

34

Substrates

Substances (I.e. drugs or natural biochemical in the body) on which an enzyme acts

35

Synergistic effects

Synergistic effects occur when two or more drugs work together to form a stronger response than individually.. i.e. 1+1 = 3

36

Therapeutic drug monitoring

The process of measuring drug levels to identify a patient's drug exposure and to allow adjustment of dosages with the goal of maximizing therapeutic effects and minimizing toxicity

37

Therapeutic effect

The desired of intended effect of a particular medication

38

Therapeutic index

The ratio between the toxic and therapeutic concentrations of a drug

39

Tolerance

Reduced response to a drug after prolonged use

40

Toxicity

The condition of producing adverse bodily effects due to poisonous qualities

41

Trade name

The commercial name given to a drug product by its manufacturer

42

Trough level

The lowest concentration of drug reached in the body after it falls from its peak level, usually measured in a blood sample for therapeutic drug monitoring