Chapter 1 What is Art
The formal expression of a conceived image or imagined conception in terms of a given medium.
1. Sensitive to art or beauty;
2. The study or philosophical appreciation of beauty which involves the definition, inspiration, intent, forms and psychological effects of art and beauty. Draws us in and visually gorgeous
The specific artistic character and dominant form noted during periods of history and art movements. Style may also refer to artists’ expressive use of media to give their work individual character.
the “what” The subject can be a person, an object, a theme or an idea.
What is it?
the “how” The form refers to the overall appearance, arrangement, or organization of an artwork.
How is the artwork made?
How large or small is the artwork?
How does it appear?
the “why” The content is the emotional or intellectual message of a work of art – a statement, expression or mood developed by the artist and interpreted by the observer.
Why was the artwork made?
a process or visual effect characterized by the simplification and/or rearrangement of the image.
A type of art in which the subject is presented through the visual art elements so that the observer is reminded of actual objects
A type of art that is completely imaginative, in which elements, their organization, and their treatment are entirely personalized and the image is not derived from anything visually perceived
• Early Desire to create and express
• Early desire to depict the world around
• Art is practical it as a purpose maybe to communicate
Practical functional - vases
practical - functional
documentation of a marriage between two people and wealth. To be painted you had to be rich (luxury)
Things begin to change during the period of this photo.
Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Portait, 1434, Oil on oak panel,
Silk house - Less than functional. Trying to relay a message
Do Ho Suh, Seoul Home/L.A. Home/New York Home/Baltimore Home/London Home/Seattle Home," 1999 Silk, 149 x 240 x 240 inches
What is Art
•Purely a human endeavor only we can do only we do it.
•Escape the limitations of the world
•Illusion of realism
Pulled all the great thinkers.
Raphael, The School of Athens, 1509-1510, Fresco, 200” x 300,” Vatican City - illusion of reality.
life in a new way, illusion see what they are thinking
Roy Lichtenstein, WHAAM!, 1963, Acrylic and oil on canvas, 67 in × 160 in
Missing human endeavor - debate
Bull elephant Noppakhao paints a picture of another elephant in Ayutthaya province, Thailand
Michael Kimmelman, The New York Times Architecture Critic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8-9q9Okkn8
Skill - knowledge, practice and aptitude - skillfully made
Michelangelo, Detail of Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel ceiling, 1508-12, Vatican City
Technique manner and skill in which the artist uses
Create life-like larger than life. Renaissance - biblical David pre or post fight with goliath
Michelangelo, David, 1501-4, Marble, 14’ 2 7/8” (high)
cohesion - gravity simple sculpture - mathematical
Carl Andre, Equivalent VIII, 1989, Fire bricks
•Does the work have to have meaning?
•Must we understand?
•What happens when we do not get it?
Art is conceptual. Put effort into understanding. Lie - all art
Meaning is evident - lovely still life
Paul Cezanne, Apples and Oranges, c. 1899, Oil on canvas, 29 1/8 x 36 5/8 inches
Metaphor for life - run through life as fast as we can and then we are done. Blink of an eye. Differently but complete
Martin Creed, Work 850, 2008, Tate Britian meaning is not as effident (30 seconds. People miss the beauty in life.
Height of abstract expression
Not interested in conveying one meaning but what the vieweSlide 17
Height of abstract expression
Not interested in conveying one meaning but what the viewer see. meaning is subjective.
Pollock, Lavender Mist, 1950, Oil on canvas
r see. meaning is subjective.
Pollock, Lavender Mist, 1950, Oil on canvas
Beauty and aesthetics - what is beautiful. This is not beautiful, is it art?
Jean Dubuffet, D'hôtel nuancé d’abricot, 1947
Favorite work of art
Cy Twombly, Cold Stream, 1966, Oil based house paint and wax crayon on canvas, 200 x 252 cm
abject work absolutely not aesthetic or beautiful
Paul McCarthy, Complex Shit, 2008, Inflatable
aesthetics is constantly changing and so is art
PHILOSOPHERS’ DEFINITIONS:What is Art?
•The formal expression of a conceived image in terms of a given medium (Cheney)
•The making of a form produced by the cooperation of all the faculties of the mind (Longman)
•Significant form (Bell)
•Unexpected inevitability of formal relation (Fry)
•A diagram or paradigm with a meaning that gives pleasure (Lostowel)
•That which gives pleasure apart from desire (Thomas Aquinas)
•Objectified pleasure (Santayana)
•Imitation (reflections of life or other ideas)
•Propaganda (emphasis on communication rather than expression, implying an effort to influence conduct)
Early Work abstract but still looks like a tree
Piet Mondrian, The Grey Tree, 1911, Oil on canvas, 30 ½” x 42 7/8”
One year later. semi representational - maybe or maybe not looks like a tree
Piet Mondrian, The Trees, 1912. Oil on canvas. 37” x 27 7/8”
Non representational – pure abstraction
Piet Mondrian, Composition, 1916. Oil on canvas and wood strip 47 ¼ x 29 ½”
Stylistic work that epitomizes Mondrian style completely non-reprensetational
Piet Mondrian, Composition with Blue, Black Yellow and Red, 1922. Gouache on paper, 41 x 49 cm
abstract, primary colors, non representational
Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue 1921 Oil on canvas 39 x 35 cm
Broadway Boogie Woogie 1942-43 Oil on canvas 127 x 127 cm
Composition with Red, Blue and Yellow 1930 Oil on canvas
Style can be adopted by artist from other artist in totally different medium
Gerrit Rietveld, Red/Blue Chair, designed 1918 (made c. 1950 by G. van Groenekan). Ebonized and painted pine, 34 7/8” 23 5/8” x 29 ¾”
Copied in architecture also
Gerrit Rietveld and Truus Schroder, Rietveld-Schroder House, 1920-1924.
Yves Saint Laurent, Mondrian inspired dresses, 2002
The three basic components of a work of art-- subject, form and content --are inseparably wed Together.
for the most part representational – barn, house, some sort of structure
Charles Sheeler, Composition around Red (Pennsylvania), 1958, oil on canvas, 26” x 33 1/4”
metal but maybe represents water maybe silk is bathers
Barbara Chase-Riboud, Bathers 1973, Cast aluminum and silk in 16 pieces, 400 x 400 x 12 cm
Subject : Pieta/moment in which Jesus is held by Mary after crucifixion
Form : Large stone sculpture chiseled in stone placed on a podium up high to be looked up at. Appears smooth and real. Mary appears larger then grown man / Comforting. Jesus lifeless
Michelangelo, Pieta, 1498-1499, marble, 68.5” x 76.8”, St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City
Subject : Small round colors
Allan McCollum, More Visible Markers in Twelve Exciting Colors, 2000, 1 ¾” x 4” x 4”
Subject : Death with child in the lap of death
Form : print crayon lithograph, small work of art. Black and white. Simple and somber. simple brush strokes. middle of the composition. Girl appears sick and vulnerable. Death appears comforting.
Content : Death can be comforting and something to embrace
Kathe Kollwitz, Young Girl in the Lap of Death, 1934. Crayon lithograph, 42 x 38 cm
Subject: Pool hall / bar
Form : Large Oil on canvas, Many reds and greens. Roome appears to be stretched
Content : Symbolizing sinful obsession
Vincent Van Gogh, The Night Cafe, Oil on canvas, 1888, 27 ½” 35”
Subject : House home
Form : Made of silk. Larger than most artwork but smaller than house. wispy and see through. fragile shell of a home. can be taken down and taken somewhere else. place shown became part of the title.
Content : Memory of home
Do Ho Suh, Seoul Home/L.A. Home/New York Home, 1999, Silk, Dimensions variable
Anther house in silk much like the other.
Do Ho Suh
Seoul Home/L.A. Home/New York Home 1999 Silk Dimensions variable
The Perfect Home 2003 Silk Dimensions variable
Conceptual art – the idea is most important. Subject becomes the why.
Subject :pile of candy, Portrait of Ross
Form : pile of candy Rosses favorite Candy. Lots of Candy but visitors are invited to take.
Content : Ross ideal weight he lost more and more weight. Hold a piece hold a memory so it is not gone.
Felix Gonzales-Torres, Untitled (Portrait of Ross), 1991, multicolored candies wrapped in cellophane, installed dimensions variable (175 lb.) ideal weight)
All about the process
Jackson Pollock in studio
Subject: abstract color smear
Form : Large oil on canvas. Pastel and black color smears and lines
Content : Woods in between Fall and winter
Jackson Pollock, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950, Oil on canvas, Oil, enamel, and aluminum on canvas, 87” x 118”
not as important to be real. Abstraction is put in place. Representational abstract
Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, Oil on canvas, 29” × 36 ¼”
Bull simplified same visual information but becomes less specific
Pablo Picasso, Bull: Plates I-XI (1945-1946)
each can read something different if there is no one reason, purely abstraction. artist loved music and this is how he see a song.
Wassily Kandinsky, Composition VIII, 1923, Oil on canvas, 55 1/8” x 79 1/8”
same idea. abstract but you can make out real things
Subject : canons, people buildings
Form : large painting oil on canvas. abstract and representational. Simple and leaning. colorful full of energy.
Content : War and destruction
Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 30 (Cannons), 1913 (140 Kb); Oil on canvas, 3’ 7” x 3’ 7 ¼”
Subject: Moon through trees
Form: B/w photo delicate wispy white
Content : ghostly night
Minor White, Moon & Wall Encrustations, 1964, Gelatin silver print
representational abstract. optical perception
Nicolas Poussin, Apollo and Daphne, 1627, oil on canvas , 97 x 131 cm
ink washed. each see something different. conceptual perception
Victor Hugo, Composition with Taches, ca. 1875, Blue ink wash on creme-laid paper folded in two, 17” x 21”
simple steal wall. Debat taken down. changes space. most basic.
Richard Serra, Tilted Arc, 1981, sculpture, steel, New York City (destroyed)
Subject : upside-down piano. Keys jutting out
Form : made from suspended piano. Upsidedown. dangling key. electrical parts. disrupts peace every 3 minutes. banging clanging sound.
Content: danger tension, my kids on bad days. things don’t work as they are suppose to.
Rebecca Horn, Concert for Anarchy, 1990, Painted wood, metal and electronic components, 1500 x 1060 x 1555 mm